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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 156804 matches for " Harcourt Brian H "
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Accuracy of real-time PCR, Gram stain and culture for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis diagnosis
Wu Henry M,Cordeiro Soraia M,Harcourt Brian H,Carvalho MariadaGloriaS
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-26
Abstract: Background Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture is the diagnostic reference standard for bacterial meningitis, its sensitivity is limited, particularly when antibiotics were previously administered. CSF Gram staining and real-time PCR are theoretically less affected by antibiotics; however, it is difficult to evaluate these tests with an imperfect reference standard. Methods and findings CSF from patients with suspected meningitis from Salvador, Brazil were tested with culture, Gram stain, and real-time PCR using S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, and H. influenzae specific primers and probes. An antibiotic detection disk bioassay was used to test for the presence of antibiotic activity in CSF. The diagnostic accuracy of tests were evaluated using multiple methods, including direct evaluation of Gram stain and real-time PCR against CSF culture, evaluation of real-time PCR against a composite reference standard, and latent class analysis modeling to evaluate all three tests simultaneously. Results Among 451 CSF specimens, 80 (17.7%) had culture isolation of one of the three pathogens (40 S. pneumoniae, 36 N. meningitidis, and 4 H. influenzae), and 113 (25.1%) were real-time PCR positive (51 S. pneumoniae, 57 N. meningitidis, and 5 H. influenzae). Compared to culture, real-time PCR sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 90.0%, respectively. In a latent class analysis model, the sensitivity and specificity estimates were: culture, 81.3% and 99.7%; Gram stain, 98.2% and 98.7%; and real-time PCR, 95.7% and 94.3%, respectively. Gram stain and real-time PCR sensitivity did not change significantly when there was antibiotic activity in the CSF. Conclusion Real-time PCR and Gram stain were highly accurate in diagnosing meningitis caused by S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, and H. influenzae, though there were few cases of H. influenzae. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Gram staining were less affected by antibiotic presence and might be useful when antibiotics were previously administered. Gram staining, which is inexpensive and commonly available, should be encouraged in all clinical settings.
Stag Parties Linger: Continued Gender Bias in a Female-Rich Scientific Discipline
Lynne A. Isbell, Truman P. Young, Alexander H. Harcourt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049682
Abstract: Discussions about the underrepresentation of women in science are challenged by uncertainty over the relative effects of the lack of assertiveness by women and the lack of recognition of them by male colleagues because the two are often indistinguishable. They can be distinguished at professional meetings, however, by comparing symposia, which are largely by invitation, and posters and other talks, which are largely participant-initiated. Analysis of 21 annual meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists reveals that within the subfield of primatology, women give more posters than talks, whereas men give more talks than posters. But most strikingly, among symposia the proportion of female participants differs dramatically by the gender of the organizer. Male-organized symposia have half the number of female first authors (29%) that symposia organized by women (64%) or by both men and women (58%) have, and half that of female participation in talks and posters (65%). We found a similar gender bias from men in symposia from the past 12 annual meetings of the American Society of Primatologists. The bias is surprising given that women are the numerical majority in primatology and have achieved substantial peer recognition in this discipline.
Policies of System Level Pipeline Modeling
Ed Harcourt
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Pipelining is a well understood and often used implementation technique for increasing the performance of a hardware system. We develop several SystemC/C++ modeling techniques that allow us to quickly model, simulate, and evaluate pipelines. We employ a small domain specific language (DSL) based on resource usage patterns that automates the drudgery of boilerplate code needed to configure connectivity in simulation models. The DSL is embedded directly in the host modeling language SystemC/C++. Additionally we develop several techniques for parameterizing a pipeline's behavior based on policies of function, communication, and timing (performance modeling).
The Play Was Always the Thing: Drama’s Effect on Brain Function  [PDF]
Brian H. Hough, Sigmund Hough
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.36064
Abstract: The brain is a mysterious canvas of actualized and unrealized possibilities. As Diane Ackerman notes, “…each person carries around atop the body a complete universe in which trillions of sensations, thoughts, and desires stream.” Brain science remains uncharted territory despite the significant efforts that have been and are being realized to better understand brain and behavior. More than mere coincidence or happenstance, plays like Shakespeare’s famous “Romeo and Juliet” with great storylines, brilliant costumes, and emotional stimulation continue to survive for ages based upon pure artistic excellence that engages the audience in a unique manner. There is a need to more fully understand how our brains process drama and the manner in which like versus dislike are decided. Most important is the factor of longevity and what makes the appealing quality of drama survive over years across cultural and generational shifts. To speak to this question, drama has been shown to have impressive effects on brain activation but remains conservative in highlighting potentially profound implications. Drama has advantageous benefits to health as well as to essential activities such as learning and personal growth. Drama should not remain underrated in terms of its influence on brain function and the relationship between environment and brain.
Meditaciones postmodernas sobre el castigo: acerca de los límites de la razón y de las virtudes de la aleatoriedad (una polémica y un manifiesto para el siglo XXI)
Bernard E. Harcourt
Derecho Penal y Criminología , 2010,
Abstract: Durante la Modernidad, el discurso sobre la pena ha girado circularmente en torno a tres grupos de interrogantes. El primero, surgido de la propia Ilustración, preguntaba: En qué basa el soberano su derecho de penar? Nietzsche con mayor determinación, pero también otros, argumentaron que la propia pregunta implicaba ya su respuesta. Con el nacimiento de las ciencias sociales, este escepticismo hizo surgir un segundo conjunto de interrogantes: Cuál es, entonces, la verdadera función de la pena? Qué es lo que hacemos cuando penamos? Una serie de críticas ulteriores –de metanarrativas, funcionalistas o de objetividad científica- debilitaron esta segunda línea de indagación, y contribuyeron a dar forma a un tercer conjunto de interrogantes: Qué nos cuenta la pena de nosotros mismos y de nuestra cultura? Qué está sucediendo que nos permita ver lo que se halla tras el giro cultural? Qué interrogantes podemos –nosotros, hijos del Siglo XXI– formular en relación con nuestras prácticas e instituciones punitivas? Este ensayo argumenta que debemos abandonar el desorientado proyecto de la modernidad, reconocer de una vez y definitivamente los límites de la razón, y orientarnos hacia la aleatoriedad y el azar. En todos los textos modernos llegó siempre un momento en el que los hechos empíricos se agotaron y las deducciones de principio alcanzaron su límite –o ambas situaciones a la vez– y el razonamiento simplemente continuó. Más que continuar asumiendo estas profesiones de fe, el presente ensayo argumenta que debemos reconocer los límites críticos de la razón y, cada vez que los alcancemos, confiar en la aleatoriedad. Donde los hechos se agotan, donde nuestros principios ya no nos guían, debemos dejar la toma de decisión al lanzamiento de moneda, a los dados, a la lotería –en suma, al azar. Este ensayo comienza a explorar lo que ello pueda significar en el ámbito del delito y de la pena.
Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans
Preston Matthew,Harcourt Alexander
Conservation & Society , 2009,
Abstract: Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 national parks in the United States. We aimed to confirm if these extinct animals were traditionally important species for Native Americans. At least one-third of the tribes included the extinct mammals in their folklore (N=45 of 124) and about half of these accounts featured the extinct species with positive and respectful attitudes, especially the carnivores. This research has shown that mammals that might have gone locally extinct have been prevalent and important in Native American traditions. Research is now needed to investigate if there indeed has been or might be any effects on traditions due to these extinctions. Regardless, due to even the possibility that the traditions of local people might be adversely affected by the loss of species, conservationists might need to consider not only all the biological reasons to conserve, but also cultural ones.
Repenser le carcéral à travers le prisme de l’institutionalisation : Sur les liens entre asiles et prisons aux Etats-Unis
Bernard E. Harcourt
Champ Pénal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.7562
Abstract: IntroductionLes textes canoniques de théorie sociale racontent une histoire remarquable, non seulement de la montée et puis, dans certains cas, du déclin d’institutions carcérales particulières –sanatorium, asile, hospice, orphelinat, prison – mais aussi d’une continuité des pratiques de détention et d’exclusion sociale à travers les ages. Ce schéma se retrouve dans les écrits d’Erving Goffman sur les Asiles (1961), de Gerald Grob dans L’état et les malades mentaux (1966), de David Rothman da...
Rethinking the Carceral through an Institutional Lens: On prisons and asylums in the United States
Bernard E. Harcourt
Champ Pénal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.7561
Abstract: Cet article est le fruit retravaillé d'une communication présentée dans le cadre du séminaire GERN "Prison, pénalité, modernité", coordonné par Gilles Chantraine, Antoinette Chauvenet, Dan Kaminski, Philippe Mary et Daniel Fink. La première séance du séminaire, Longues peines et peines indéfinies, punir la dangerosité s'est tenue à Paris le 21 mars 2008 ; elle a été financée par le GERN et l'Université de St-Quentin. La deuxième séance, Prison, psychiatrie et gestion de la dangerosité ...
Rethinking the Carceral through an Institutional Lens: On prisons and asylums in the United States
Bernard E. Harcourt
Champ Pénal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.7563
Abstract: IntroductionThe classic texts of social theory tell a consistent story not only about the rise and (in some cases) fall of discrete carceral institutions, but also of the remarkable continuity of confinement and social exclusion. This pattern is reflected in the writings of Erving Goffman on Asylums (1961), Gerald Grob on The State and the Mentally Ill (1966), David Rothman on The Discovery of the Asylum (1971), and Michel Foucault (1961). In Madness and Civilization, Foucault traces the con...
Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of Human-Like Bipedal Biomechanics
David A. Raichlen,Adam D. Gordon,William E. H. Harcourt-Smith,Adam D. Foster,Wm. Randall Haas Jr
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009769
Abstract: Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow us to understand whether selection acted to decrease energy costs of bipedalism by 3.6 Ma.
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