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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19797 matches for " Harcourt Alexander "
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Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans
Preston Matthew,Harcourt Alexander
Conservation & Society , 2009,
Abstract: Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 national parks in the United States. We aimed to confirm if these extinct animals were traditionally important species for Native Americans. At least one-third of the tribes included the extinct mammals in their folklore (N=45 of 124) and about half of these accounts featured the extinct species with positive and respectful attitudes, especially the carnivores. This research has shown that mammals that might have gone locally extinct have been prevalent and important in Native American traditions. Research is now needed to investigate if there indeed has been or might be any effects on traditions due to these extinctions. Regardless, due to even the possibility that the traditions of local people might be adversely affected by the loss of species, conservationists might need to consider not only all the biological reasons to conserve, but also cultural ones.
Stag Parties Linger: Continued Gender Bias in a Female-Rich Scientific Discipline
Lynne A. Isbell, Truman P. Young, Alexander H. Harcourt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049682
Abstract: Discussions about the underrepresentation of women in science are challenged by uncertainty over the relative effects of the lack of assertiveness by women and the lack of recognition of them by male colleagues because the two are often indistinguishable. They can be distinguished at professional meetings, however, by comparing symposia, which are largely by invitation, and posters and other talks, which are largely participant-initiated. Analysis of 21 annual meetings of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists reveals that within the subfield of primatology, women give more posters than talks, whereas men give more talks than posters. But most strikingly, among symposia the proportion of female participants differs dramatically by the gender of the organizer. Male-organized symposia have half the number of female first authors (29%) that symposia organized by women (64%) or by both men and women (58%) have, and half that of female participation in talks and posters (65%). We found a similar gender bias from men in symposia from the past 12 annual meetings of the American Society of Primatologists. The bias is surprising given that women are the numerical majority in primatology and have achieved substantial peer recognition in this discipline.
Policies of System Level Pipeline Modeling
Ed Harcourt
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: Pipelining is a well understood and often used implementation technique for increasing the performance of a hardware system. We develop several SystemC/C++ modeling techniques that allow us to quickly model, simulate, and evaluate pipelines. We employ a small domain specific language (DSL) based on resource usage patterns that automates the drudgery of boilerplate code needed to configure connectivity in simulation models. The DSL is embedded directly in the host modeling language SystemC/C++. Additionally we develop several techniques for parameterizing a pipeline's behavior based on policies of function, communication, and timing (performance modeling).
Meditaciones postmodernas sobre el castigo: acerca de los límites de la razón y de las virtudes de la aleatoriedad (una polémica y un manifiesto para el siglo XXI)
Bernard E. Harcourt
Derecho Penal y Criminología , 2010,
Abstract: Durante la Modernidad, el discurso sobre la pena ha girado circularmente en torno a tres grupos de interrogantes. El primero, surgido de la propia Ilustración, preguntaba: En qué basa el soberano su derecho de penar? Nietzsche con mayor determinación, pero también otros, argumentaron que la propia pregunta implicaba ya su respuesta. Con el nacimiento de las ciencias sociales, este escepticismo hizo surgir un segundo conjunto de interrogantes: Cuál es, entonces, la verdadera función de la pena? Qué es lo que hacemos cuando penamos? Una serie de críticas ulteriores –de metanarrativas, funcionalistas o de objetividad científica- debilitaron esta segunda línea de indagación, y contribuyeron a dar forma a un tercer conjunto de interrogantes: Qué nos cuenta la pena de nosotros mismos y de nuestra cultura? Qué está sucediendo que nos permita ver lo que se halla tras el giro cultural? Qué interrogantes podemos –nosotros, hijos del Siglo XXI– formular en relación con nuestras prácticas e instituciones punitivas? Este ensayo argumenta que debemos abandonar el desorientado proyecto de la modernidad, reconocer de una vez y definitivamente los límites de la razón, y orientarnos hacia la aleatoriedad y el azar. En todos los textos modernos llegó siempre un momento en el que los hechos empíricos se agotaron y las deducciones de principio alcanzaron su límite –o ambas situaciones a la vez– y el razonamiento simplemente continuó. Más que continuar asumiendo estas profesiones de fe, el presente ensayo argumenta que debemos reconocer los límites críticos de la razón y, cada vez que los alcancemos, confiar en la aleatoriedad. Donde los hechos se agotan, donde nuestros principios ya no nos guían, debemos dejar la toma de decisión al lanzamiento de moneda, a los dados, a la lotería –en suma, al azar. Este ensayo comienza a explorar lo que ello pueda significar en el ámbito del delito y de la pena.
Repenser le carcéral à travers le prisme de l’institutionalisation : Sur les liens entre asiles et prisons aux Etats-Unis
Bernard E. Harcourt
Champ Pénal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.7562
Abstract: IntroductionLes textes canoniques de théorie sociale racontent une histoire remarquable, non seulement de la montée et puis, dans certains cas, du déclin d’institutions carcérales particulières –sanatorium, asile, hospice, orphelinat, prison – mais aussi d’une continuité des pratiques de détention et d’exclusion sociale à travers les ages. Ce schéma se retrouve dans les écrits d’Erving Goffman sur les Asiles (1961), de Gerald Grob dans L’état et les malades mentaux (1966), de David Rothman da...
Rethinking the Carceral through an Institutional Lens: On prisons and asylums in the United States
Bernard E. Harcourt
Champ Pénal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.7561
Abstract: Cet article est le fruit retravaillé d'une communication présentée dans le cadre du séminaire GERN "Prison, pénalité, modernité", coordonné par Gilles Chantraine, Antoinette Chauvenet, Dan Kaminski, Philippe Mary et Daniel Fink. La première séance du séminaire, Longues peines et peines indéfinies, punir la dangerosité s'est tenue à Paris le 21 mars 2008 ; elle a été financée par le GERN et l'Université de St-Quentin. La deuxième séance, Prison, psychiatrie et gestion de la dangerosité ...
Rethinking the Carceral through an Institutional Lens: On prisons and asylums in the United States
Bernard E. Harcourt
Champ Pénal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.7563
Abstract: IntroductionThe classic texts of social theory tell a consistent story not only about the rise and (in some cases) fall of discrete carceral institutions, but also of the remarkable continuity of confinement and social exclusion. This pattern is reflected in the writings of Erving Goffman on Asylums (1961), Gerald Grob on The State and the Mentally Ill (1966), David Rothman on The Discovery of the Asylum (1971), and Michel Foucault (1961). In Madness and Civilization, Foucault traces the con...
Shared Reproductive State Enhances Female Associations in Dolphins
Luciana M. M ller,Robert G. Harcourt
International Journal of Ecology , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/498390
Abstract: Female bottlenose dolphins (genus Tursiops) usually associate at moderate level with other females within social clusters called bands or cliques. It has been suggested that reproductive state may play the predominant role in determining associations within female T. truncatus bands. Here, we test the hypothesis that reproductive state correlates with associations of female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). We found that females in similar reproductive state, which included females from late pregnancy to the first year of their calves' life or females from early pregnancy to their calves' newborn period, had higher-association coefficients with each other than they did with females in different reproductive states (females with older calves or without calves). This was observed both within and across social clusters suggesting that reproductive state, at least for pregnant females and those with young calves, plays an important role in determining who to associate with. However, a female's most frequent associate was not always with another in similar reproductive state. We suggest that several factors, including reproductive state, may be of importance in determining associations of female bottlenose dolphins.
A Robust and Economical Underwater Stereo Video System to Observe Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba)  [PDF]
Tom B. Letessier, So Kawaguchi, Rob King, Jessica J. Meeuwig, Robert Harcourt, Martin J. Cox
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.33016
Abstract:

In situ characterization of krill morphometry, behaviour and orientation is not yet routinely feasible, yet is critical to understanding swarm characteristics. A first step is to measure individual and aggregation behaviour. We report on successful use of a robust, low-cost underwater stereo video camera system to observe live Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in aquaria. The application of photogrammetry techniques allows animal length, orientation and three-dimensional position to be calculated from stereo video camera observations. Initially, we tested the efficacy of the stereo system by observing synthetic targets of known length and orientation to obtain estimates of measurement error. We found that on average the stereo camera system underestimated length by 0.6 mm and vertical tilt angle by +0.34°(head up), but that photogrammetric measurements of 100 randomly selected krill lengths were not significantly different from measurements of 100 randomly caught krill measured physically. During our investigation, we analysed three krill behavioural metrics: swimming speed, tortuosity, and vertical orientation under three behavioural states (undisturbed, feeding, and escape). We found that swim speed and tortuosity significantly increased when animals were feeding or exhibiting an escape response, but vertical orientation was not significantly different across states. Our investigation demonstrates that low-cost stereo video cameras can produce precise measurements that can be used for monitoring krill behaviour and population structure.

Initiative, Personality and Leadership in Pairs of Foraging Fish
Shinnosuke Nakayama, Jennifer L. Harcourt, Rufus A. Johnstone, Andrea Manica
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036606
Abstract: Studies of coordinated movement have found that, in many animal species, bolder individuals are more likely to initiate movement and shyer individuals to follow. Here, we show that in pairs of foraging stickleback fish, leadership is not merely a passive consequence of temperamental differences. Instead, the act of initiating a joint foraging trip out of cover itself brings about a change in the role that an individual plays throughout the subsequent trip, and success in recruiting a partner affects an individual's tendency to initiate the next trip. On each joint trip, whichever fish took the initiative in leading out of cover gains greater influence over its partner's behaviour, which persists even after several changes in position (i.e. termination attempts and re-joining). During any given trip, the initiator is less responsive to its partner's movements than during trips initiated by the partner. An individual's personality had an important effect on its response to failure to recruit a partner: while bold fish were unaffected by failures to initiate a joint trip, shy individuals were less likely to attempt another initiation after a failure. This difference provides a positive feedback mechanism that can partially stabilise social roles within the pair, but it is not strong enough to prevent occasional swaps, with individuals dynamically adjusting their responses to one another as they exchange roles.
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