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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 91833 matches for " Hans W. Gottinger "
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Network Economies for the Internet  [PDF]
Hans W. Gottinger
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.34053
Abstract: The article has been retracted due to the investigation of complaints received against it. The Editorial Board found that substantial portions of the text came from other published papers. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter, and the Modern Economy treats all unethical behavior such as plagiarism seriously. This paper published in Vol.3 No.4 408-423, 2012, has been removed from this site.
Quality of Service on Queueing Networks for the Internet  [PDF]
Hans W. Gottinger
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.53012
Abstract: Most studies of resource allocation mechanisms in Internet traffic have used a performance model of the resource provided, where the very concept of the resource is defined in terms of measurable qualities of the service such as utilization, throughput, response time (delay), security level among others. Optimization of resource allocation is defined in terms of these measurable qualities. One novelty introduced by an economic mechanism design approach is to craft a demand-driven system which takes into account the diverse QoS requirements of users, and therefore, uses multiobjective (utility) optimization techniques to characterize and compute optimum allocations. Economic modelling of computer and communication resource sharing uses a uniform paradigm described by two level modelling: QoS requirements as inputs into a performance model that is subject to economic optimization.
Network Economies for the Internet-Application Models  [PDF]
Hans Gottinger
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.34042
Abstract: We propose a decentralized model of network and server economies, where we show efficient QoS (Quality of Service) provisioning and Pareto allocation of resources (network and server resources) among agents and suppliers, which are either network routers or servers (content providers). Specifically, it is shown 1) how prices for resources are set at the suppliers based on the QoS demands from the agents and 2) how dynamic routing algorithms and admission control mechanisms based on QoS preferences emerge from the user classes for the network economy.
Photons Are EM Energy Superpositioned on TEM Waves  [PDF]
Hans W. Giertz
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2013.33013
Abstract: The study displays that TEM waves (e.g. radio waves, light) consist of low frequency plane TEM waves where the radio frequency energy or light energy is superpositioned on these low frequency TEM waves. The superpositioned energy can be discrete and where its frequency ν determines its energy hv and where this superpositioned energy hv is the photon. The study shows that photons and TEM waves are described by the laws of electromagnetism. Hence, there is a duality between the photon and the TEM wave and also a duality between electromagnetism and quantum theory in this case. The low frequency plane TEM waves originate from a singularity in universe and have been described earlier. The study describes how energy from a generator, from light bulbs and radio antennas is superpositioned on low frequency TEM waves, resulting in medium frequency TEM waves, radio waves and light. The study displays that light from the sun consists of light energy superpositioned on low frequency TEM waves. The study describes methods enabling measurement of the low frequency plane TEM waves and the superpositioned energy.
Gravity Caused by TEM Waves Operating on Dipoles in Atoms  [PDF]
Hans W. Giertz
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.32A007
Abstract:

The study displays the existence of a gravitational singularity in the universe generating synchronized and extremely low frequency plane TEM (transverse electromagnetic) waves. It is proposed that atomic intrinsic electromagnetic fields create resonance with these plane TEM waves, causing atoms to receive and to re-emit synchronized plane TEM waves. The energy flow of synchronized plane TEM waves, travelling in opposite directions between e.g. two atoms, creates mutual force of attraction, i.e. gravity. Consequently, gravity is not an intrinsic atomic feature; however, the result of passive atoms exposed to electromagnetic energy. The study describes how plane TEM waves emitted by the gravitational singularity were measured. The study also displays how gravity from the earth, moon, sun and the gravitational singularity was measured and how gravity was simulated using an electronic device. The present electromagnetic law of gravity is compared with Newtonian geometric law of gravity.

Atoms Absorb Low Frequency Electromagnetic Energy  [PDF]
Hans W. Giertz
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2013.34017
Abstract:

This paper presents a method to measure TEM (transverse electromagnetic) waves absorbed by atoms. The results show the existence of a singularity in the universe which generates a broad spectrum of synchronized and extremely low frequency TEM waves in the period range 30 - 160 s. Atoms create resonance and absorb these TEM waves. The absorbed energy consists of a set of TEM waves where the sum generates an intrinsic static electric and magnet field. It is proposed that this static electric and magnetic field induces static forces within the atomic nucleus. The study describes a method to measure TEM waves absorbed by atoms (direction, frequency and amplitude). The study displays that chemical elements absorb TEM waves of different periods, supporting the hypothesis that TEM waves are absorbed by an atomic intrinsic resonance mechanism. The study displays a non-invasive method facilitating novel analyses of the atomic nucleus.

Photon Frequency Shift Caused by Gravity and Its Electromagnetic Process  [PDF]
Hans W. Giertz
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.42033
Abstract:

In the present paper, photon frequency shift, e.g. gravitational red and blueshift, is described as the electromagnetic influence from gravity waves on photons, e.g. light waves. Previous reports have described the dynamic electromagnetic processes of the atom, the photon and gravity, and how these characteristics are measured. Results from these reports have been compiled into a theoretical model. The theoretical model describes the mechanism which results in photon frequency shift caused by a gravitational field. The theoretical model gives results similar to General Relativity using Schwarzschild metric. The theoretical model is mapped on black holes.

Inertial and Gravitational Mass Described by Their Electromagnetic Processes  [PDF]
Hans W. Giertz
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2014.42002
Abstract: In the present paper, gravitational and inertial mass are described as one and the same electromagnetic mechanism in atoms and particles. Previous reports have described the dynamic electromagnetic processes of the atom, the photon and gravity. Results from these reports have been compiled into a theoretical model. The theoretical model describes the mechanism creating gravitational and inertial mass. The study also displays how the electromagnetic characteristics of gravitational and inertial mass and the mechanism are measured.
Gravitational Lensing Described by Its Electromagnetic Processes  [PDF]
Hans W. Giertz
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.41024
Abstract: In the present paper, gravitational lensing is described as the electromagnetic influence from gravity waves on light waves. Previous reports have described the dynamic electromagnetic processes of the atom, the photon and gravity. Results from these reports have been compiled into a theoretical model. The theoretical model describes the mechanism which results in gravitational lensing. The study also displays how the electromagnetic characteristics of gravity waves and light waves and the mechanism creating gravitational lensing are measured.
Metric Expansion of Space Described by Gravity Based on Electromagnetic Processes  [PDF]
Hans W. Giertz
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.42029
Abstract:

The present study describes the metric expansion of space based on a novel understanding of gravity and its electromagnetic processes. A singularity in the universe emits electromagnetic energy, which is absorbed by atoms and re-emitted to other atoms. This results in mutual force of attraction, i.e.gravity. We assume that the distance R towards the singularity is constant andr is the distance between two bodies. Then the gravitational force decreases with the decrease of the re-emitted energy, i.e. as 1/r2, and in line with Newtonian gravity and General Relativity. However, the universe orbits the singularity and hence R varies. R increases when a certain part of space travels from the singularity, and whereby the energy re-emitted by atoms decreases as

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