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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8440 matches for " Hans Tore Rapp "
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Osedax mucofloris (Polychaeta, Siboglinidae), a bone-eating marine worm new to Norway
Christoffer Schander,Hans Tore Rapp,Thomas G. Dahlgren
Fauna Norvegica , 2010, DOI: 10.5324/fn.v30i0.632
Molecular Phylogeny of the Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) Reveals an Unexpected High Level of Spicule Homoplasy
Paco Cárdenas,Joana R. Xavier,Julie Reveillaud,Christoffer Schander,Hans Tore Rapp
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018318
Abstract: The Astrophorida (Porifera, Demospongiaep) is geographically and bathymetrically widely distributed. Systema Porifera currently includes five families in this order: Ancorinidae, Calthropellidae, Geodiidae, Pachastrellidae and Thrombidae. To date, molecular phylogenetic studies including Astrophorida species are scarce and offer limited sampling. Phylogenetic relationships within this order are therefore for the most part unknown and hypotheses based on morphology largely untested. Astrophorida taxa have very diverse spicule sets that make them a model of choice to investigate spicule evolution.
Relationships between Host Phylogeny, Host Type and Bacterial Community Diversity in Cold-Water Coral Reef Sponges
Sandra Sch?ttner, Friederike Hoffmann, Paco Cárdenas, Hans Tore Rapp, Antje Boetius, Alban Ramette
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055505
Abstract: Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges are among the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in their tissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for the relationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus low microbial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location and water depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that as many as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were shared between sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes in bacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge species (63% of explained community variation), sponge family (52%) or sponge type (30%), whereas mesoscale geographic distances and water depth showed comparatively small effects (<5% each). In addition, a highly significant, positive relationship between bacterial community dissimilarity and sponge phylogenetic distance was observed within the ancient family of the Geodiidae. Overall, the high diversity of sponges in cold-water coral reefs, combined with the observed sponge-related variation in bacterial community structure, support the idea that sponges represent heterogeneous, yet structured microbial habitats that contribute significantly to enhancing bacterial diversity in deep-sea ecosystems.
Personality styles in patients with fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls
Hans M Nordahl, Tore C Stiles
Annals of General Psychiatry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1744-859x-6-9
Abstract: Personality styles were measured by the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS). The Structured Clinical interview for DSM Axis I was applied to Axis I disorders, while the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression severity.Patients with FMS in general have a sociotropic personality style similar to patients with MDD, and different from HC, but FMS patients without a lifetime history of MDD had a cognitive personality style different from patients with MDD and similar to HC.These findings suggest that a depressotypic personality style is related to depressive disorder, but not to FMS.Fibromyalgia is characterized by symptoms of chronic widespread pain and stiffness, multiple tender points at specific anatomical sites, chronic fatigue and sleep disturbance [1-3]. Its aetiology remains unknown, although some biological mechanisms have been identified [4,5]. Since fibromyalgia resembles many psychiatric disorders in that it lacks solid evidence of recognizable anatomical alterations, it has been suggested to be a manifestation of hysteria [6], depression [7] or affective spectrum disorder [8]. Others have, however, asserted that fibromyalgia is not a psychiatric disorder [9], and that fibromyalgia develop as response to an overactive lifestyle [10] or in the absence of psychological factors [11].Four studies have examined the occurrence of DSM syndromal disorders in patients with primary fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis [7,12-14]. Two studies found a significantly higher occurrence of a lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder in fibromyalgia patients than in arthritis patients [7,13], while the other two did not find group differences in the occurrence of any DSM syndromal disorders [12,14]. In addition two studies have compared the frequency of lifetime psychiatric disorders in fibromyalgia patients to subjects without a pain syndrome [12,15]. One of them found that fibromyalgia patients from a tertiary care
Bandwidth Selection In Pre-Smoothed Particle Filters
Tore Selland Kleppe,Hans Julius Skaug
Statistics , 2013,
Abstract: For the purpose of maximum likelihood estimation of static parameters, we apply a kernel smoother to the particles in the standard SIR filter for non-linear state space models with additive Gaussian observation noise. This reduces the Monte Carlo error in the estimates of both the posterior density of the states and the marginal density of the observation at each time point. We correct for variance inflation in the smoother, which together with the use of Gaussian kernels, results in a Gaussian (Kalman) update when the amount of smoothing turns to infinity. We propose and study of a criterion for choosing the optimal bandwidth $h$ in the kernel smoother. Finally, we illustrate our approach using examples from econometrics. Our filter is shown to be highly suited for dynamic models with high signal-to-noise ratio, for which the SIR filter has problems.
Changes of Body Mass Index in Relation to Mortality: Results of a Cohort of 42,099 Adults
Jochen Klenk, Kilian Rapp, Hanno Ulmer, Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084817
Abstract: Background High Body-Mass-Index (BMI) is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but little is known about the effect of short- and long-term BMI change on mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how long-term weight change affects mortality. Methods and findings Within a population-based prospective cohort of 42,099 Austrian men and women (mean age 43 years) with at least three BMI measurements we investigated the relationship of BMI at baseline and two subsequent BMI change intervals of five years each with all-cause mortality using Cox proportional Hazard models. During median follow-up of 12 years 4,119 deaths were identified. The lowest mortalities were found in persons with normal weight or overweight at baseline and stable BMI over 10 years. Weight gain (≥0.10 kg/m2/year) during the first five years was associated with increased mortality in overweight and obese people. For weight gain during both time intervals mortality risk remained significantly increased only in overweight (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.01; 1.92)) and obese women (1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.18; 2.89)). Weight loss (< ?0.10 kg/m2/year) increased all-cause mortality in men and women consistently. BMI change over time assessed using accepted World Health Organisation BMI categories showed no increased mortality risk for people who remained in the normal or overweight category for all three measurements. In contrast, HRs for stable obese men and women were 1.57 (95% CI: 1.31; 1.87) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.25; 1.71) respectively. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of weight stability and obesity avoidance in prevention strategy.
Disability pension by occupational class - the impact of work-related factors: The Hordaland Health Study Cohort
Inger Haukenes, Arnstein Mykletun, Ann Knudsen, Hans-Tore Hansen, John M?land
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-406
Abstract: A subsample (N = 7031) of the population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) conducted in 1997-99, provided self-reported information on health and work-related factors, and were grouped in four strata by Erikson, Goldthorpe and Portocareros occupational class scheme. The authors obtained follow-up data on disability pension by linking the health survey to national registries of benefit (FD-trygd). They employed Cox regression analysis and adjusted for gender, health (medical conditions, mental health, self-perceived health, somatic symptoms) and work-related factors (working hours, years in current occupation, physical demands, job demands, job control).A strong gradient in disability pension by occupational class was found. In the fully adjusted model the risk (hazard ratio) ranged from 1.41 (95% CI 0.84 to 2.33) in the routine non-manual class, 1.87 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.27) in the skilled manual class and 2.12 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.95) in the unskilled manual class, employing the administrator and professional class as reference. In the gender and health-adjusted model work-related factors mediated the impact of occupational class on subsequent disability pension with 5% in the routine non-manual class, 26% in the skilled manual class and 24% in the unskilled manual class. The impact of job control and physical demands was modest, and mainly seen among skilled and unskilled manual workers.Workers in the skilled and unskilled manual classes had a substantial unexplained risk of disability pension. Work-related factors only had a moderate impact on the disability risk. Literature indicates an accumulation of hazards in the manual classes. This should be taken into account when interpreting the gradient in disability pension.Being employed contrary to unemployed is highly valued in modern society and it is associated with good health [1]. However, among those employed, the risk of exclusion from working life as a result of disability pension varies considerably by educatio
Multiple organ failure after trauma affects even long-term survival and functional status
Atle Ulvik, Reidar Kv?le, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Hans Flaatten
Critical Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/cc6111
Abstract: This is a cohort study of all adult ICU trauma patients admitted to a university hospital during 1998 to 2003. Organ failure was quantified by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. A telephone interview was conducted in 2005 (2 to 7 years after trauma) using the Karnofsky Index to measure functional status, and the Glasgow Outcome Score to measure recovery.Of the 322 patients included, 47% had multiple organ failure (MOF), and 28% had single organ failure. In a Cox regression, MOF increased the overall risk of death 6.0 times. At follow-up, 242 patients (75%) were still alive. Patients with MOF had 3.9 times greater odds for requiring personal assistance in activities of daily living compared to patients without organ failure. Long-term survival and functional status were the same for patients suffering single organ failure and no organ failure. Complete recovery occurred in 52% of survivors, and 87% were able to look after themselves.Almost half of the ICU trauma patients had MOF. While single organ failure had no impact on long-term outcomes, the presence of MOF greatly increased mortality and the risk of impaired functional status. MOF expressed by SOFA score may be used to define trauma patients at particular risk for poor long-term outcomes.Multiple organ failure (MOF) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients [1]. Recent studies report an incidence of MOF of between 5% and 25% for trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) [2-4].MOF has been defined as progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems following an acute threat to systemic homeostasis [5]. Several organ dysfunction scoring systems have been developed to describe and quantify organ dysfunction/failure in ICU patients [6-8]. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score quantifies and describes the evolution of organ dysfunction/failure over time [8], and has been validated in trauma patients [9]. Different derivations of t
Hormone replacement therapy, calcium and vitamin D3 versus calcium and vitamin D3 alone decreases markers of cartilage and bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN46523456]
Helena Forsblad d'Elia, Stephan Christgau, Lars-?ke Mattsson, Tore Saxne, Claes Ohlsson, Elisabeth Nordborg, Hans Carlsten
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/ar1215
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by cartilage destruction, bone erosions, periarticular osteoporosis, and generalized bone loss resulting in increased prevalence of osteoporotic fractures [1,2]. Some of the disease mechanisms responsible for focal bone loss may be similar to processes of generalized osteoporosis and associated with osteoclast activation [3-5].Skeletal maintenance occurs by a tightly coupled process of bone remodeling consisting of a process of bone resorption by the osteoclasts followed by deposition of new bone by the osteoblasts. Estrogen deficiency is known to increase bone remodeling and the sustained increase in bone turnover induces a faster bone loss. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is known to restore this imbalance [6] and reduce the incidence of spinal and peripheral fractures in healthy women [7,8] and also to improve bone mass in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [9,10]. Expression of estrogen receptors has been demonstrated in osteoblastic cells [11], osteoclastic cells [12], and human articular chondrocytes [13]. Estrogen decreases osteoclast formation and activity and increases apoptosis of osteoclasts [14,15]. Furthermore estrogen also seems to have a stimulatory effect on bone formation by the osteoblasts [16]. Combined, these two effects are responsible for the bone-protective effects of estrogen and they also explain why women experience an accelerated bone loss after the menopause.Generalized bone loss in postmenopausal women with RA will occur as a result of decreased estrogen levels accelerating bone turnover and systemic bone loss and by the inflammatory processes resulting in systemic increase of several cytokines shown to up regulate systemic bone turnover. In addition, bone loss also takes place focally as a consequence of the arthritic disease process. Markers of bone turnover provide an integrated measure of systemic turnover, and several studies have demonstrated significant elevations in, especially, resorptio
The art of being negative: Metonymical morphological constructions in contrast
Tore Nesset
Oslo Studies in Language , 2011,
Abstract: This paper explores the metonymic nature of grammar by contrasting a Russian and a Norwegian morphological construction that give (mostly) negative characterizations of people. The meanings of the constructions are strikingly similar, and it is argued that they cannot be properly understood without recourse to metonymy. However, while Norwegian employs compounding, the morphological strategy used in the Russian construction is derivation. It is demonstrated that these differences are not idiosyncratic facts about Norwegian and Russian, since there is systemic motivation for the differences between the two languages.
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