Abstract:
Integration between business planning and information systems (IS) planning is considered an important enabler of business - IS alignment. A con-tent analysis of IS plans was conducted to identify stages of integration between business and IS planning. The companies studied were also classified according to value configurations and eras of IS growth. Empirical results indicate that companies classified as value networks are at a higher stage of integration than value shops and chains probably because they are in the network era rather than the data processing or information technology eras.

Abstract:
Knowledge and learning are important in combating financial crime generallyand white-collar crime in particular. The purpose of this research is to generateinsights into prevention approaches in practice that may reflect on acontingent approach. The five hundred largest business companies in termsof annual turnover were identified in Norway for our empirical study of whitecollarcrime. A paper letter was mailed to the chief financial officer (CFO)asking him or her to fill in the questionnaire to be found on a web site usinga password found in the letter. The open-ended question in the questionnaireto CFOs about prevention of white-collar crime was formulated as follows:How can white-collar crime best be prevented in your company? Survey resultsindicate an even distribution of respondents emphasizing control and respondentsemphasizing influence. This empirical research steps back from manybest practice articles and provides insights into preferences of chief financialofficers on how to prevent white-collar crime in the company.

Abstract:
Data on inpatient hospital services, outpatient clinic visits, physician services, drugs, medical equipment, nutrition guidance, physiotherapy, acupuncture, foot therapy and indirect costs were collected from national registers and responses to a survey of 584 patients with diabetes. The study was performed with a prevalence approach. Uncertainty was explored by means of bootstrapping.When hospital stays with diabetes as a secondary diagnosis were excluded, the total costs were €293 million, which represents about 1.4% of the total health care expenditure. Pharmaceuticals accounted for €95 million (32%), disability pensions €48 million (16%), medical devices €40 million (14%) and hospital admissions €21 million (7%). Patient expenditures for acupuncture, physiotherapy and foot therapy were many times higher than expenditure for nutritional guidance. Indirect costs (lost production from job absenteeism) accounted for €70.1 million (24% of the €293 million) and included sick leave (€16.7 million), disability support and disability pensions (€48.2 million) and other indirect costs (€5.3 million). If all diabetes related hospital stays are included (primary- and secondary diagnosis) total costs amounts to €535 million, about 2.6% of the total health care expenditure in Norway.Diabetes represents a considerable burden to society in terms of health care costs and productivity losses.Diabetes mellitus places a considerable burden on patients in terms of morbidity [1] and mortality [2] and on society in terms of costs [3-5]. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in many countries [6] including Norway [7]. The number of patients with type 1 diabetes has been estimated at 25,000 [8]. In 2005, 117,600 persons in Norway were treated with insulin or oral antidiabetics [9]. We then assume that 92,600 of them have type 2 diabetes. In the Norwegian HUNT study [10] the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes that was not on antidiabetic pharmaceuticals was 30%. This wo

Abstract:
Many hard graph problems, such as Hamiltonian Cycle, become FPT when parameterized by treewidth, a parameter that is bounded only on sparse graphs. When parameterized by the more general parameter clique-width, Hamiltonian Cycle becomes W[1]-hard, as shown by Fomin et al. [5]. S{\ae}ther and Telle address this problem in their paper [13] by introducing a new parameter, split-matching-width, which lies between treewidth and clique-width in terms of generality. They show that even though graphs of restricted split-matching-width might be dense, solving problems such as Hamiltonian Cycle can be done in FPT time. Recently, it was shown that Hamiltonian Cycle parameterized by treewidth is in EPT [1, 6], meaning it can be solved in $n^{O(1)} 2^{O(k)}$-time. In this paper, using tools from [6], we show that also parameterized by split-matching-width Hamiltonian Cycle is EPT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first EPT algorithm for any "globally constrained" graph problem parameterized by a non-trivial and non-sparse structural parameter. To accomplish this, we also give an algorithm constructing a branch decomposition approximating the minimum split-matching-width to within a constant factor. Combined, these results show that the algorithms in [13] for Edge Dominating Set, Chromatic Number and Max Cut all can be improved. We also show that for Hamiltonian Cycle and Max Cut the resulting algorithms are asymptotically optimal under the Exponential Time Hypothesis.

Abstract:
The unpolarized response functions of the quasielastic $^{16}O(e,e^\prime p)^{15}N$ reaction are calculated for three different types of relativistic bound state wave functions. The wave functions are obtained from relativistic Hartree, relativistic Hartree-Fock and density dependent relativistic Hartree calculations that reproduce the experimental charge radius of $^{16}$O. The sensitivity of the unpolarized response functions to the single particle structure of the different models is investigated in the relativistic plane wave impulse approximation. Redistributions of the momentum dependence in the longitudinal and transverse response function can be related to the binding energy of the single particle states. The interference responses $R_{LT}$ and $R_{TT}$ reveal a strong sensitivity to the small component of the relativistic bound state wave function.

Abstract:
The Dirac structure of the nucleon self-energy in asymmetric nuclear matter cannot reliably be deduced from the momentum dependence of the single-particle energies. It is demonstrated that such attempts yield an isospin dependence with even a wrong sign. Relativistic studies of finite nuclei have been based on such studies of asymmetric nuclear matter. The effects of these isospin components on the results for finite nuclei are investigated.

Abstract:
Serological analysis in sheep and wild cervids from southern Norway indicate that A. phagocytophilum infection is abundant on tick-infested pasture [10,12]. The northernmost case of TBF diagnosed so far has been in the county of S？r-Tr？ndelag (63°43'N) [9], although permanent populations of I. ricinus have been found much further north [4]. Except for Babesia divergens infection in cattle, tick-borne infections in mammalians have not earlier been diagnosed in North Norway [8].In February 2004, seven pregnant cows were brought from a tick-free area in southern Norway to a farm (Farm A) in Br？nn？ysund (65°26'N), North Norway, in order to synchronize calving time (Figure 1). The whole flock was turned out on pasture in April/May. Three weeks later four of the purchased animals contracted high fever (40.9–41.2°C) within a period of four days, and two more cows showed high fever one week later. Thus, six of the seven purchased cows reacted with high fever and reduced milk yield. In contrast, clinical signs were not seen in local cattle.Tick-borne infections were not suspected at that time, and serological testing for antibodies against several respiratory viruses, i.e. bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus was inconclusive. Three of these cows became seriously ill and were later euthanasied. Post mortem examination of two cows showed paretic mastitis and endocarditis/polyathritis, respectively, while autopsy of the third cow gave inconclusive results. Unfortunately, no serum or tissue samples were stored for later examination.In order to replace the lost animals, the farmer received on July 15 three cattle from a farm (Farm B) located in the same municipality as Farm A. The distance between these two farms is around 30 km. Nine days later one of these animals, a three-year-old milking cow, became ill. The most characteristic clinical signs were high fever (>41.0°C), anorexia and a s

Abstract:
A key point of Dirac Brueckner Hartree Fock calculations for nuclear matter is to decompose the self energy of the nucleons into Lorentz scalar and vector components. A new method is introduced for this decomposition. It is based on the dependence of the single-particle energy on the small component in the Dirac spinors used to calculate the matrix elements of the underlying NN interaction. The resulting Dirac components of the self-energy depend on the momentum of the nucleons. At densities around and below the nuclear matter saturation density this momentum dependence is dominated by the non-locality of the Brueckner G matrix. At higher densities these correlation effects are suppressed and the momentum dependence due to the Fock exchange terms is getting more important. Differences between symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter are discussed. Various versions of the Bonn potential are considered.

Abstract:
The self-energy of nucleons in asymmetric nuclear matter is evaluated employing different realistic models for the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Starting from the Brueckner Hartree Fock approximation without the usual angle-average in the two-nucleon propagator the effects of the hole-hole contributions are investigated within the self-consistent Green's function approach. Special attention is paid to the isospin-dependence of correlations, which can be deduced from the spectral functions of nucleons in asymmetric matter. The strong components of the proton - neutron interaction lead in neutron-rich matter to a larger depletion for the occupation probability of proton states below the Fermi momentum.

Abstract:
Many hard graph problems can be solved efficiently when restricted to graphs of bounded treewidth, and more generally to graphs of bounded clique-width. But there is a price to be paid for this generality, exemplified by the four problems MaxCut, Graph Coloring, Hamiltonian Cycle and Edge Dominating Set that are all FPT parameterized by treewidth but none of which can be FPT parameterized by clique-width unless FPT = W[1], as shown by Fomin et al [7, 8]. We therefore seek a structural graph parameter that shares some of the generality of clique-width without paying this price. Based on splits, branch decompositions and the work of Vatshelle [18] on Maximum Matching-width, we consider the graph parameter sm-width which lies between treewidth and clique-width. Some graph classes of unbounded treewidth, like distance-hereditary graphs, have bounded sm-width. We show that MaxCut, Graph Coloring, Hamiltonian Cycle and Edge Dominating Set are all FPT parameterized by sm-width.