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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7858 matches for " Hans Rostad "
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Fatal Complications and Early Death after Surgical Treatment of Lung Cancer in 2000 and 2010. A Population Based Study  [PDF]
Hans Rostad
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.41019

In the year 2000 lung cancer was operated in 349 patients in Norway, in 2010 the number was 461. In the first period fatal surgical hemorrhage occurred in eight patients, in four of them peroperatively. Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in four patients in the year 2000 and in two in 2010. Ten patients died intra- or postoperatively in the two periods which is a mortality rate within 30 days after surgery of 4.3% in the first and 1.1% in the second period. Pneumonectomy was performed in 34 patients in 2000 and eight in 2010, respectively. Altogether 19 patients died within six months after surgery without having experienced surgical complications. Pneumonectomy should not be performed in elderly and debilitated persons.

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: Better Than Its Reputation? A Population Based Study
Hans Rostad,Erik Heyerdahl Str?m,Helge Scott,Maria Ramnefjell
Journal of Interdisciplinary Histopathology , 2012, DOI: 10.5455/jihp.20120703032839
Abstract: Purpose: Identify the proportion of patients with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) who were alive five years or more after the diagnosis in the period 2000-2005. Of the 2 270 patients diagnosed with SCLC 94 had survived five years or more. All morphological diagnoses were reviewed and in 72 cases the diagnosis was maintained. In 15 patients the diagnosis was changed, and seven discarded. Of the maintained 7% were disseminated and 93% limited disease. The favorable survival of the 72 patients is most likely caused by the high percentage of limited disease. The application of biomarkers may hopefully assist in identifying patients with favorable prognosis in the future. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000): 1-4]
Network Economies for the Internet-Application Models  [PDF]
Hans Gottinger
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.34042
Abstract: We propose a decentralized model of network and server economies, where we show efficient QoS (Quality of Service) provisioning and Pareto allocation of resources (network and server resources) among agents and suppliers, which are either network routers or servers (content providers). Specifically, it is shown 1) how prices for resources are set at the suppliers based on the QoS demands from the agents and 2) how dynamic routing algorithms and admission control mechanisms based on QoS preferences emerge from the user classes for the network economy.
On the Foundations of Guidelines for Health Economic Assessment  [PDF]
Hans Keiding
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.45004

In recent years, increased attention has been given to guidelines for cost-effectiveness analysis of medical interventions, and some of these guidelines (such as NICE [1]) have become rather influential. In the paper, we present a model of retrieving and processing information to be used for the study of guidelines and their use. Our main result, which relies on a version of the theorem of Blackwell [2], shows that in cases where there are sufficiently many decisions to be made on the basis of the information obtained, there can be no other objective ranking of methods than the trivial one ranking more information is higher than less information. In our context, this means that guidelines may have administrative advantages but cannot be considered as a scientifically based approach to better decision making.

Comprehensive Analysis of MGMT Promoter Methylation: Correlation with MGMT Expression and Clinical Response in GBM
Nameeta Shah,Biaoyang Lin,Zita Sibenaller,Timothy Ryken,Hwahyung Lee,Jae-Geun Yoon,Steven Rostad,Greg Foltz
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016146
Abstract: O6-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation has been identified as a potential prognostic marker for glioblastoma patients. The relationship between the exact site of promoter methylation and its effect on gene silencing, and the patient's subsequent response to therapy, is still being defined. The aim of this study was to comprehensively characterize cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotide methylation across the entire MGMT promoter and to correlate individual CpG site methylation patterns to mRNA expression, protein expression, and progression-free survival. To best identify the specific MGMT promoter region most predictive of gene silencing and response to therapy, we determined the methylation status of all 97 CpG sites in the MGMT promoter in tumor samples from 70 GBM patients using quantitative bisulfite sequencing. We next identified the CpG site specific and regional methylation patterns most predictive of gene silencing and improved progression-free survival. Using this data, we propose a new classification scheme utilizing methylation data from across the entire promoter and show that an analysis based on this approach, which we call 3R classification, is predictive of progression-free survival (HR = 5.23, 95% CI [2.089–13.097], p<0.0001). To adapt this approach to the clinical setting, we used a methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) test based on the 3R classification and show that this test is both feasible in the clinical setting and predictive of progression free survival (HR = 3.076, 95% CI [1.301–7.27], p = 0.007). We discuss the potential advantages of a test based on this promoter-wide analysis and compare it to the commonly used methylation-specific PCR test. Further prospective validation of these two methods in a large independent patient cohort will be needed to confirm the added value of promoter wide analysis of MGMT methylation in the clinical setting.
The Market for Firms: Market Signaling and Overpricing  [PDF]
Jerome Davis, Hans Keiding
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2010.13024
Abstract: In this paper, the pricing and sale of firms is approached from the owners’ point of view. It is shown that there are very strong ex ante owner incentives to set prices of firm products or services below their short- term profit maximizing levels, since low prices signal low costs and as a consequence a higher sales value of the firm. Buyers take this signaling into consideration, but irrespective of their countermoves, the equilib- rium result may be a lowering of ex ante product prices, and an ex post market overvaluation of the firm. This model is utilized to suggest possible explanations to one of the more puzzling initial public offer (IPO) phenomena: the long run underperformance of IPO equities.
Deposition of charged nano-particles in the human airways including effects from cartilaginous rings  [PDF]
Hans O. Akerstedt
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.310113
Abstract: This paper presents a numerical study of the deposition of spherical charged nano-particles caused by convection, Brownian diffusion and electrostatics in a pipe with a cartilaginous ring structure. The model describes the deposition of charged particles in the different generations of the tracheobronchial tree of the human lung. The upper airways are characterized by a certain wall structure called cartilaginous rings which modify the particle deposition when compared to an airway with a smooth wall. The problem is defined by solving Naver-Stokes equations in combination with a convective-diffusion equation and Gauss law for electrostatics. Three non- dimensional parameters describe the problem, the Peclet number Pe = 2ūa/D , the Reynolds number Re = ūa/v and an electrostatic parameter α=α2c0q2/(4ε0κT) . Here U is the mean velocity, a the pipe radius and D the diffusion coefficient due to Brownian motion given by D=κTCu/3πμd , where Cu is the Cunningham-factor Cu=1+λ/d(2.34+1.05exp(-0.39d/λ)) Here d is the particle diameter and λ the mean free path of the air molecules. Results are provided for generations G4-G16 of the human airways. The electrostatic parameter is varied to model different concentrations and charge numbers.
Using Insulation in China’s Buildings: Potential for Significant Energy Savings and Carbon Emission Reductions  [PDF]
Guoliang Liu, Hans Liu
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.24027
Abstract: Most old residential and commercial buildings in China are not insulated or not to new standards. This is true even in regions with very cold winters or regions with very hot summers. The insulation in new buildings is very poor relative to North American standards. However, insulating the exterior walls, attic roofs, and foundation walls to new standards of buildings in China would reduce the need for heating and air conditioning, and thus would save roughly 200 million tons of coal each year. This in turn would lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions of about 510 million tons per year, which is equal to about 8.4% of China’s total carbon emissions in 2006. The use of insulation in buildings will help homeowners save money, help China save energy and help the environment all at the same time. Insulation will provide a continued payback to the homeowner, not only in dollars and cents, but also by providing a more enjoyable and comfortable living environment for many years.
Network Economies for the Internet  [PDF]
Hans W. Gottinger
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.34053
Abstract: The article has been retracted due to the investigation of complaints received against it. The Editorial Board found that substantial portions of the text came from other published papers. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter, and the Modern Economy treats all unethical behavior such as plagiarism seriously. This paper published in Vol.3 No.4 408-423, 2012, has been removed from this site.
Photons Are EM Energy Superpositioned on TEM Waves  [PDF]
Hans W. Giertz
Open Journal of Microphysics (OJM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojm.2013.33013
Abstract: The study displays that TEM waves (e.g. radio waves, light) consist of low frequency plane TEM waves where the radio frequency energy or light energy is superpositioned on these low frequency TEM waves. The superpositioned energy can be discrete and where its frequency ν determines its energy hv and where this superpositioned energy hv is the photon. The study shows that photons and TEM waves are described by the laws of electromagnetism. Hence, there is a duality between the photon and the TEM wave and also a duality between electromagnetism and quantum theory in this case. The low frequency plane TEM waves originate from a singularity in universe and have been described earlier. The study describes how energy from a generator, from light bulbs and radio antennas is superpositioned on low frequency TEM waves, resulting in medium frequency TEM waves, radio waves and light. The study displays that light from the sun consists of light energy superpositioned on low frequency TEM waves. The study describes methods enabling measurement of the low frequency plane TEM waves and the superpositioned energy.
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