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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9643 matches for " Hans Jonas "
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The Risk Factors of Intensive Care Unit Admittance during First Attack of Acute Pancreatitis  [PDF]
Jonas Dale, Thomas Omdal, Stein Atle Lie, Knut Iversen, Hans Flaaten, Kjell Kore Ovrebo
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.312118
Abstract: Background: A proportion of patients with acute pancreatitis develop severe organ dysfunction requiring admittance in an intensive care unit. Patient characteristics associated with ICU admittance were evaluated in this consecutive series of patients. Methods: The clinical course of patients with first attack of acute pancreatitis in urban Norway between 01.01.1996 and 31.12.2006 was reviewed. Patient characteristics, comorbidity, pre hospital delay and likely aetiology of acute pancreatitis were analysed as risk factors for ICU admittance. Results: This study includes 565 patients, 299 women and 266 men (p = 0.089), with a median age of 60 years (range: 17 - 98). 50 (9%) of the patients were admitted to the ICU. Men were more at risk than women for ICU admittance (OR 2.34; 95% CI: 1.27 - 4.32). Patients with alcohol associated pancreatitis (OR 5.94; 95%, CI: 2.61 - 13.53), miscellaneous aetiologies (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.02 - 7.73) and non-assessed aetiology (OR: 2.71, 95%, CI: 1.26 - 5.82) were more at risk of ICU admittance than patients with bile stones associated pancreatitis. Pre hospital delay increased the risk of ICU admittance amongst patients with alcohol associated pancreatitis (OR: 4.23; 95%, CI: 1.11 - 16.18). Two comorbid conditions conveyed increased risk (OR: 8.78; 95%, CI: 1.87 - 41.22). The case fatality rate was 24% in the ICU and 1.6% in the ward (OR 20.01, 95% CI: 7.71 - 51.93). Conclusions: Aetiology of acute pancreatitis, especially alcohol, pre-hospital delay and male gender are associated with increased of risk of ICU admittance and increased fatality rate during first attack of AP.
O fardo e a ben o da mortalidade
Hans Jonas,Wendell Evangelista Soares Lopes (Tradutor)
Princípios : Revista de Filosofia , 2009,
Abstract: O texto é uma tradu o da conferência intitulada “The Burden and Blessing of Mortality” (The Hastings Center Report, 22, n. 1, jan-fev. 1992, p. 34-40), que foi apresentada à Funda o do Palácio Real [The Royal Palace Foundation], em Amsterdam, no dia 19 de mar o de 1991. Esta conferência foi traduzida para o alem o por Reinhard L w e revisada pelo próprio Jonas, aparecendo com o título “Last und Segen der Sterblichkeit” em Scheidewege 21, 1991/92, p. 26-40, e mais tarde em um livro do próprio Jonas: Philosophische Untersuchungen und metaphysische Vermutungen [Investiga es Filosóficas e Suposi es Metafísicas]. Frankfurt am Main: Insel Verlag, 1992, p. 81-100. Por sua vez, o texto original, em inglês, veio ainda a fazer parte de uma coletanea de ensaios de Jonas, editada por Lawrence Vogel (Mortality and Morality: a search for good after Auschwits. Ed. Lawrence Vogel. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1996, p. 87-97).
Hereditary chronic pancreatitis
Jonas Rosendahl, Hans B?deker, Joachim M?ssner, Niels Teich
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-1
Abstract: Hereditary chronic pancreatitisAlready in 1952 Comfort and Steinberg were first to recognize that chronic pancreatitis may accumulate in selected families suggesting a genetic background [1]. Thereafter, hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP) was defined as an autosomal dominant disease with a penetrance of approximately 80%. However, in the daily clinical setting the inheritance pattern cannot be determined in some cases. In 1996 several groups mapped a gene for HCP to chromosome 7 [2-4]. In the same year, Whitcomb and colleagues identified an R122H mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene (PRSS1) [5]. Several other mutations were described subsequently (A16V, D22G, K23R, N29I, N29T, R122C) [6-12]. Until now, the R122H and N29I mutations of the PRSS1 gene have been identified as the most common disease associated mutations [5-7].In the last decade, several authors identified associations of chronic pancreatitis (idiopathic and hereditary) to other genes, such as the anionic trypsinogen (PRSS2), the Serine Protease Inhibitor, Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) [13-16]. On the other hand, environmental factors as smoking, alcohol consumption or the lack of antioxidants were assumed to be important manifestation factors, even in HCP [17-20] (Figure 1).The definition of HCP as a classic autosomal dominant disorder represents the current knowledge. However, the criteria of the diagnosis of HCP have been changing over the years and are currently different in the various clinical centres. In the recently published Europac study, the diagnosis of hereditary pancreatitis was made on the basis of two first-degree relatives or three or more second-degree relatives, in two or more generations with recurrent acute pancreatitis, and/or chronic pancreatitis for which there were no precipitating factors. Cases in which these strict criteria were not met, but more than one affected family member was identified, mostly within the
Hydrological Science and Its Connection to Religion in Ancient Egypt under the Pharaohs  [PDF]
Jonas Eliasson
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2013.23019
Abstract: The history of water management in the Fertile Crescentis closely related to the religion. This is most clear in ancientEgyptin pharaonic time. The class of priests serving under the pharaoh had also many other administrative duties, they had good skill in science, collected hydrological and astronomical data and used it to levy taxes and predict the floods that irrigated the arable land. The special hydrological features of the riverNilemake it rather predictable in behavior compared to other major rivers of the region. In this social position the priests had great influence and could use it to stop the pharaoh Ikhnaton in his attempt to establish a monotheistic religion by ousting Amon-Ra and replacing him with Aton. Social life was very colorful at pharaohs’ court and the various arts and festivals flourished. The most remarkable of these was the Opet festival where pharaoh himself was the leading figure together with the statues of the gods. The festival was to last 10 days and during that time the riverNilewas to change color from grayish to reddish and thereby mark the beginning of the life-giving flood and bear witness to the good relations between the king and the divine powers. This kind of event, an annual prayer by the king to the gods for good harvest was well known in many societies, but it shows the remarkable skills of the Amon-Ra priest that they were ready to predict the onset of theNileflood within ten days and get away with it.
LC/MS/MS Analysis of N-Terminal Protein Adducts with Improved Sensitivity: A Comparison of Selected Edman Isothiocyanate Reagents
Per Rydberg,Hans von Stedingk,J rgen Magnér,Jonas Bj rklund
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/153472
Abstract: This study provides a basis for a new and straightforward method for LC/MS/MS-based screening of N-terminal protein adducts. This procedure is denoted the “FIE procedure” as fluorescein sothiocyanate (FITC) gave superior sensitivity by LC/MS/MS when measuring adducts () of electrophilic compounds with a modified Edman procedure. The principles of the FIE-procedure are that adducts to N-terminal amino acids selectively are detached and measured from of proteins after derivatisation by isothiocyanate Edman reagents. In this study, FITC, 4-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene 4-isothiocyanate (DABITC) and 4-dimethylamino-1-naphthyl isothiocyanate (DNITC) were used to synthesize thiohydantoin analytes from valine and N-methylvaline. The sensitivity by LC/MS/MS was enhanced by up to three orders of magnitude as compared to phenyl isothiocyanate and higher as compared to pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate. The FITC reagent will enable measurements of low background adduct levels. Synthesized analytes were characterised with, for example, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC/MS/MS, and UV.
Immuno-Therapy with Anti-CTLA4 Antibodies in Tolerized and Non-Tolerized Mouse Tumor Models
Jonas Persson, Ines Beyer, Roma Yumul, ZongYi Li, Hans-Peter Kiem, Steve Roffler, André Lieber
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022303
Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (anti-CTLA4) are a novel form of cancer immunotherapy. While preclinical studies in mouse tumor models have shown anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CTLA4 injection or expression, anti-CTLA4 treatment in patients with advanced cancers had disappointing therapeutic benefit. These discrepancies have to be addressed in more adequate pre-clinical models. We employed two tumor models. The first model is based on C57Bl/6 mice and syngeneic TC-1 tumors expressing HPV16 E6/E7. In this model, the HPV antigens are neo-antigens, against which no central tolerance exists. The second model involves mice transgenic for the proto-oncogen neu and syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC) cells. In this model tolerance to Neu involves both central and peripheral mechanisms. Anti-CTLA4 delivery as a protein or expression from gene-modified tumor cells were therapeutically efficacious in the non-tolerized TC-1 tumor model, but had no effect in the MMC-model. We also used the two tumor models to test an immuno-gene therapy approach for anti-CTLA4. Recently, we used an approach based on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to deliver the relaxin gene to tumors and showed that this approach facilitates pre-existing anti-tumor T-cells to control tumor growth in the MMC tumor model. However, unexpectedly, when used for anti-CTLA4 gene delivery in this study, the HSC-based approach was therapeutically detrimental in both the TC-1 and MMC models. Anti-CTLA4 expression in these models resulted in an increase in the number of intratumoral CD1d+ NKT cells and in the expression of TGF-β1. At the same time, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which potentially can support anti-tumor T-cell responses, were lower in tumors of mice that received anti-CTLA4-HSC therapy. The differences in outcomes between the tolerized and non-tolerized models also provide a potential explanation for the low efficacy of CTLA4 blockage approaches in cancer immunotherapy trials.
Protection of rabbits against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) using an intimin null mutant
Tim Stakenborg, Dominique Vandekerchove, Jonas Mari?n, Hans Laevens, Hein Imberechts, Johan Peeters
BMC Veterinary Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-22
Abstract: After verifying its complete loss of virulence, we used the attenuated strain in vaccination-challenge experiments in which complete protection against a homologous, but virulent, strain was observed. The attenuated strain was able to persist in the intestinal lumen, where it elicited an immune response against EPEC-related virulence proteins, as was shown using an EspB-specific ELISA. Despite the priming of an immune response and the generation of specific antibodies, the intimin mutant was not able to fully protect rabbits against challenges with REPEC strains of other bio-/serogroups.These data indicate that protection against REPEC infections is at least partly bio-/serogroup dependent and a multivalent vaccine may be needed for protection against the full range of REPEC types. Such a combination vaccine may be developed using intimin null mutants, as the latter were clearly shown to be safe and effective against homologous infections.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains are an important cause of human and animal diarrhea. In humans, EPEC are a substantial cause of infant mortality in developing countries. In rabbit production, especially newly weaned animals are highly vulnerable to EPEC. The attaching and effacing virulence mechanism of EPEC is encoded by the chromosomal locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) [1,2]. After initial adherence, EPEC translocate their intimin receptor (Tir) and other proteins to the eukaryotic host cell by means of an LEE encoded type III secretion apparatus. Positioning of Tir in the host cell membrane makes the interaction possible with intimin, the outer membrane adhesin encoded by eae [3,4]. This adhesin-receptor binding leads to an intimate contact between the bacterium and the host cell, resulting in the effacement of the microvilli and the formation of actin-rich pedestals beneath the adherent EPEC [5,6].Compared to EPEC in humans [7], only a limited number of bio-/serogroups have been described for rabbit EPEC (RE
Patterns of endogenous steroids in apathetic refugee children are compatible with long-term stress
Hans S?ndergaard, Mark M Kushnir, Bernice Aronsson, Per Sandstedt, Jonas Bergquist
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-186
Abstract: Eleven children were recruited in the study. Concentrations of steroids in blood samples were determined using high sensitivity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. Symptoms were assessed with a clinical rating scale developed for the study. Steroid concentrations were measured at the entry into study and after recovery; and concentrations were evaluated for the association with the symptoms in apathetic children.Cortisol and cortisone concentrations at baseline were negatively associated with duration of the symptoms from entry into the study to clinical recovery. Higher concentrations of pregnanes (pregnenolone, 17-OH-pregnenolone, and dehydroepiandrosterone) were observed in the symptomatic state and the concentrations decreased after the recovery.Pattern of low cortisol concentrations found in apathetic children is consistent with long-term stress. An increase of upstream steroid metabolites (pregnanes) was found to be associated with the symptomatic state.During the year 2003 and the following years, child psychiatrists and pediatricians in Sweden were stunned by an overwhelming number of cases of refugee children that were in a stuporous state, non-responsive to communication, often unable to eat, drink and sometimes incontinent.At the same time a new and stricter interpretation of reasons for granting asylum status had been applied by the Swedish Aliens Immigration Board. Humanitarian reasons and so-called “refugee-like reasons” for granting asylum had almost been obliterated and this forced the decision makers to be much more restrictive in granting refugee status.The above-described condition was diagnosed in 424 children (during year 2004) of the asylum-seekers, and a panel of expert pediatricians and child psychiatrists eventually agreed in naming the condition “Giving Up”- syndrome (Swedish: Uppgivenhetssyndrom), although some pointed to a similarity with “Pervasive Refusal Syndrome” [1]. Among the proposed theories aimed on explaining
A simple statistical model for prediction of acute coronary syndrome in chest pain patients in the emergency department
Jonas Bj?rk, Jakob L Forberg, Mattias Ohlsson, Lars Edenbrandt, Hans ?hlin, Ulf Ekelund
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-6-28
Abstract: Multivariable analysis and logistic regression were used on data from 634 ED visits for chest pain. Only data immediately available at patient presentation were used. To make ACS prediction stable and the model useful for personnel inexperienced in electrocardiogram (ECG) reading, simple ECG data suitable for computerized reading were included.Besides ECG, eight variables were found to be important for ACS prediction, and included in the model: age, chest discomfort at presentation, symptom duration and previous hypertension, angina pectoris, AMI, congestive heart failure or PCI/CABG. At an ACS prevalence of 21% and a set sensitivity of 95%, the negative predictive value of the model was 96%.The present prediction model, combined with the clinical judgment of ED personnel, could be useful for the early discharge of chest pain patients in populations with a low prevalence of ACS.Unstable angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), together denoted acute coronary syndrome (ACS), are consequences of acute coronary artery disease with myocardial ischemia. Despite considerable progress in the treatment of ACS with antithrombotic drugs and catheter-based interventions (balloon angioplasty), the ability to diagnose ACS in the emergency department (ED) remains relatively poor. Since missed cases of ACS carry a high morbidity and mortality from heart failure and arrhythmia, the number of "rule-out" admissions are high, and some 7 or more out of 10 patients admitted with the suspicion of ACS do no not have it [1,2]. This large overadmission implies a unsatisfactory quality of care for the patients and a high cost for the health care system [3,4]. To improve the situation, new diagnostic methods such as immediate stress tests [5], myocardial perfusion imaging [6], echocardiography [7], and new blood tests have been suggested. In addition, decision support tools in the form of prediction models have been developed to help the physician handle the clinical information
Quantum interference structures in trapped ion dynamics beyond the Lamb-Dicke and rotating wave approximations
Dong Wang,Tony Hansson,Asa Larson,Hans O. Karlsson,Jonas Larson
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.053808
Abstract: We apply wave packet methods to study an ion-trap system in the strong excitation regime imposing neither the rotating wave nor the Lamb-Dicke approximations. By this approach we show the existence of states with restricted phase space evolution, as a genuine consequence of quantum interference between wave packet fractions. A particular instance of such a state oscillates between maximal entanglement and pure disentanglement between the constitute subsystems. The characteristic crossover time is very rapid making them suitable for state preparations of EPR or Schrodinger cat states. Over longer time periods the dynamics of these states exhibits collapse-revival patterns with well resolved fractional revivals in autocorrelation, inversion and entanglement.
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