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Assessment and Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Shoulder Disorders over the Internet
Leah Steele,Hannah Lade,Stephanie McKenzie,Trevor G. Russell
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/945745
Abstract: Shoulder disorders are common, debilitating, and represent a considerable burden on society. As primary contact practitioners, physiotherapists play a large role in the management and rehabilitation of people with these conditions. For those living outside of urban areas, however, access to physiotherapy can be limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of using a telerehabilitation system to collect physical examination findings and correctly identify disorders of the shoulder. Twenty-two participants with 28 shoulder disorders were recruited and underwent a face-to-face physical examination and a remote telerehabilitation examination. Examination findings and diagnoses from the two modes of assessment were used to determine validity and reliability of the new method. Diagnostic agreement and agreement on individual findings between the two methods were found to be consistent with the reliability of conventional assessment methods. This study provides important preliminary findings on the validity and reliability of musculoskeletal examinations conducted via telerehabilitation. 1. Introduction Shoulder pain is common in society, with 7%–27% of the adult population experiencing shoulder pain at any one time, and 7%–67% of people experiencing shoulder pain in their lifetime [1]. Of first episode shoulder pain clients, 50% will continue to have symptoms 18 months later [2], making shoulder pain the third most common reason for primary care consultation, after back and neck complaints [3]. Accurate and effective assessment and treatment of shoulder conditions is therefore important to health care practitioners. Physiotherapists often assess and treat clients with shoulder pain, and there exists considerable evidence of effective physiotherapy treatments for many shoulder disorders [3–8], with conservative physiotherapy management shown to provide up to an 88% improvement in shoulder function in the long term [9]. Unfortunately, people living in rural and remote areas of Australia have limited access to physiotherapy services, a phenomenon observed also in the USA [10–12]. Telerehabilitation, the provision of rehabilitation services via the internet, is one potential service delivery model which may improve access to physiotherapy services in rural and remote areas. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the validity and reliability of telerehabilitation for the assessment and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders [13, 14]. To establish the concurrent validity of such services, research must prove that
Geometric and projection effects in Kramers-Moyal analysis
Steven J. Lade
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.031137
Abstract: Kramers-Moyal coefficients provide a simple and easily visualized method with which to analyze stochastic time series, particularly nonlinear ones. One mechanism that can affect the estimation of the coefficients is geometric projection effects. For some biologically-inspired examples, these effects are predicted and explored with a non-stochastic projection operator method, and compared with direct numerical simulation of the systems' Langevin equations. General features and characteristics are identified, and the utility of the Kramers-Moyal method discussed. Projections of a system are in general non-Markovian, but here the Kramers-Moyal method remains useful, and in any case the primary examples considered are found to be close to Markovian.
Optimal driving waveform for overdamped, adiabatic rocking ratchets
Steven J. Lade
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/41/27/275103
Abstract: As a first step in the project of ratchet optimisation, the optimal driving waveform among a wide class of admissible functions for an overdamped, adiabatic rocking ratchet is shown to be dichotomous. `Optimum' is defined as that which achieves the maximum (or minimum negative) average particle velocity. Implications for the design of ratchets, for example in nanotechnological transport, may follow. The main result is applicable to a general class of adiabatic responses.
Finite sampling interval effects in Kramers-Moyal analysis
Steven J. Lade
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2009.08.029
Abstract: Large sampling intervals can affect reconstruction of Kramers-Moyal coefficients from data. A new method, which is direct, non-stochastic and exact up to numerical accuracy, can estimate these finite-time effects. For the first time, exact finite-time effects are described analytically for special cases; biologically inspired numerical examples are also worked through numerically. The approach developed here will permit better evaluation of Langevin or Fokker-Planck based models from data with large sampling intervals. It can also be used to predict the sampling intervals for which finite-time effects become significant.
Using Deductions from Assessment Studies towards Furtherance of the Academic Program: An Empirical Appraisal of Institutional Student Course Evaluation  [PDF]
Abdullah Al Rubaish, Lade Wosornu, Sada Nand Dwivedi
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.32029
Abstract: The regular evaluation of ongoing activities under academic programs is required evidence towards academic development. Indeed, such evaluations generally involve data collection on a Likert type item as one (strongly disagree) to five (strongly agree). While using arithmetic mean in item by item analysis to derive inferences, as adopted by the National Commission for Assessment and Academic Accreditation (NCAAA), two issues occurred to us, its accuracy as well as usefulness. We took initiatives to also use more appropriate and useful measures to deal with the ordinal scale involved in such data. Surprisingly, a review showed a mixed practice. This article aims to describe and advocate the need of focusing more on such appropriate practices. Such practice extends many-fold benefits: (i) theoretical appropriateness, (ii) accuracy in results and related inferences, (iii) ease of understanding, (iv) useful clues regarding academic improvements, and (v) optimum use of allocated resources.
Appraisal of Using Global Student Rating Items in Quality Management of Higher Education in Saudi Arabian University  [PDF]
Abdullah Al Rubaish, Lade Wosornu, Sada Nand Dwivedi
iBusiness (IB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2012.41001
Abstract: Academic institutions preparing for quality and academic accreditation adopt a range of evaluations. Each of such evaluations involves closed items, a mixture of individual items on various aspects, followed by global item which is the overall satisfaction of students about related evaluation. A common question in mind of the academic developers is “where to start, using global items results, or, individual items results!” Through exploratory results of course evaluation survey (CES) data on courses in nursing program of University of Dammam, this article attempts to answer this question. In summary, under this program which is in the developmental phase, one can expedite decision making related to required action plans by using global items results.
Early Warning Signals for Critical Transitions: A Generalized Modeling Approach
Steven J. Lade ,Thilo Gross
PLOS Computational Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002360
Abstract: Critical transitions are sudden, often irreversible, changes that can occur in a large variety of complex systems; signals that warn of critical transitions are therefore highly desirable. We propose a new method for early warning signals that integrates multiple sources of information and data about the system through the framework of a generalized model. We demonstrate our proposed approach through several examples, including a previously published fisheries model. We regard our method as complementary to existing early warning signals, taking an approach of intermediate complexity between model-free approaches and fully parameterized simulations. One potential advantage of our approach is that, under appropriate conditions, it may reduce the amount of time series data required for a robust early warning signal.
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Stubi?ar Lade?i? Gordana
Kemija u Industriji , 2006,
Theoretical Investigations of Ti-Based Binary Shape Memory Alloys  [PDF]
Rita John, Hannah Ruben
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.210184
Abstract: The electronic structure and ground state properties of TiX (X = Fe, Ni, Pd, Pt and Cu) type Shape Memory alloys have been calculated using the self consistent Tight- Binding Linear Muffin Tin Orbital (TB-LMTO) method. The systematic total energy studies made on TiX alloys in both B2 and (B19/B19’) structures successfully explain the structural stability of these compounds. The equilibrium lattice parameters, bulk moduli (Bo), cohesive energy (Ecoh) and heat of formation (ΔH) are calculated for these systems and compared with the available experimental and other theoretical results. The bonding nature of these TiX alloys is analyzed via the density of states (DOS) histogram.
Ramifications Associated with Child Abuse  [PDF]
Hannah Mills, Elizabeth McCarroll
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.24036
Abstract: The incidence of child abuse has become quite prevalent and may be referred to as a global phenomenon (Pala, Unalacak, & Unluoglu, 2011). In terms of a global phenomenon, it may be significant to assess negative ramifications that are in existence for children’s overall social, emotional, and cognitive maturation (DeOliveira, Bailey, Moran, & Pederson, 2004). Specifically, preschool children who are abused within their home environments are less likely to detect variations in emotional expressions as compared to preschoolers who have not been abused (Pollak, Cicchetti, Hornung, & Reed, 2000). In regards to the domain of cognitive development, children who are reared in abusive home environments are likely to display overactive behaviors and exhibit less concentration (Schatz, Smith, Borkowski, Whitman, & Keogh, 2008). In relation, children reared in abusive environments are less likely to perform at high levels in regards to their math and reading abilities (Crozer & Barth, 2005). Thus, the act of child abuse may also be better well understood by assessing parenting styles and how they play a role with affecting the type of behaviors they elicit towards their children (Baumrind, 1994). For instance, specific traits or factors related to individuals’ parenting abilities, such as stress, depression, domestic violence, incarceration, and psychological difficulties may be more likely to abuse their children as opposed to parents who do not obtain these traits or factors (Nair, Schular, Black, Kettinger, & Harrington, 2003). Implications in regards to the prevalence of child abuse may be quite significant, especially considering psychological ramifications that may surface due to the act of children’s exposure to abuse (Johnson et al., 2002). For instance, children may be more likely to suppress, or internalize their emotions due to the exposure to child abuse and they may be more likely to externalize, or exhibit certain behaviors in an outward fashion towards others due to the immersion within environments comprised of child abuse (Schatz, Smith, Borkowski, Whitman, & Keogh, 2008). Furthermore, professionals who obtain the knowledge about child abuse may better serve families and children who have experienced abuse within their lives.
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