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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401803 matches for " Hani M. Alnawafleh "
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Shale Oil Solvent Extraction of Central Jordan El-Lajjun Oil Shale  [PDF]
Hani M. Alnawafleh, Feras Y. Fraige
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2015.53004
Abstract: The extraction of the organic matter (OM) from oil shale (OS) can be achieved by several processing techniques. Normally, these techniques can remove high proportion of the organic material contained in oil shale. In this work, organic solvents extraction experiments were implemented to investigate the effect of various parameters on Jordanian El-Lajjun oil shale extractability. Results indicate that the approximate organic matter content in studied El-Lajjun oil shale is 17.48%, and 75% of OS sample particles diameters are less than 270 μm. The grain size has minor effect on shale oil extraction via organic solvents. Among eleven solvents used, the highest yield is obtained via the tetrahedrofuran (THF), whereas, with the use of solvent mixtures, the highest bitumen yield is obtained through the mixture of THF and toluene. The solvation variability is related to mode of extraction and various physicochemical factors such as extraction temperature, pressure, solvent type and mixing time, which result in different OM yield. The results indicate that the solvent extraction could be potential for shale oil extraction from Jordanian El-Lajjun OS under certain conditions of temperature, pressure and solvent type used.
Analysis of Selected Oil Shale Samples from El-Lajjun, Central Jordan  [PDF]
Hani M. Alnawafleh, Feras Y. Fraige
Geomaterials (GM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2015.53008
Abstract: The centralJordanpart is rich in bituminous rocks that are known locally as oil shale (OS). These rocks were formed during the Maastrichtian-Palaeocene time. They belong to the Muwaqqar ChalkMarlformation (MCM). El-Lajjun OS deposit is located in relatively thinly populated area. This study presents the results of mineralogical, petrographical and geochemical analyses that are performed on selected surface outcrop oil shale samples from El-Lajjun area in central Jordan. Results show that El-Lajjun OS deposit is considered as a good source of OS resources since its organic matter is quite significant. The bulk rock material is made of carbonate.
Leachability of Oil Shale Ash from Isfir Al-Mahata Oil Shale, Southern Jordan  [PDF]
Hani M. Alnawafleh, Mohammad S. Al-Harahsheh, Adnan M. Al-Harahsheh
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2016.45026
Abstract: This paper presents the first study on the oil shale (OS) ashing and OS ash leachability of Jordanian OS located further in the south. The studied OS is from Isfir Al-Mahata subsurface OS located 10 km south of Ma’an. Chemical and physical characterization of the OS ash was performed and compared with original OS. Ashing OS was conducted at different temperatures. Important parameters affecting OS ash leachability were also investigated. The leachability of certain heavy metals was investigated based on clear leaching protocol. The Fisher Assay analysis result indicates that this OS type has quite higher moisture content, lower oil content, and higher spent shale compared with other Jordanian oil shales. Ashing of OS at higher temperatures (950°C) resulted in the disappearance of silica, due to its complete reaction with lime and Al, and formation of Anhydrite and cement materials like, Portland cement. The leachability analysis indicates that for most elements the leachability is high at low pH. The released heavy metals concentrations are below EPA limits. Chromium and lead are leached out more than other elements with the exception at low pH. In general, the higher the ashing temperature is, the lower the release of elements is. The chemical composition of the ash and the leachability results suggests that it has high fixing capacity toward the heavy metals present in the ash.
Monitoring and Assessing of Spring Water Quality in Southwestern Basin of Jordan  [PDF]
Omar A. Al-Khashman, Hani M. Alnawafleh, Ahmad M. Abu Jrai, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2017.74019
Abstract: This study was undertaken to assess the physical, chemical and hydrochemical quality of spring water in the southwestern basin of Jordan during a 60-month follow up monitoring study (April 2009 to April 2014). The samples were analyzed for temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, major cations, major anions and trace metals. The results show that there were considerable variations among the analyzed samples with respect to their physical and chemical parameters, which lie below the maximum permissible levels of the Jordanian and World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards. This study shows that the trace metals of spring water in the study area do not generally pose any health or environmental issues. The assessment of water samples indicates that groundwater, in general, is chemically suitable for drinking and agricultural uses.
Fractional Yield, Extract Composition and Variability from Jordanian Oil Shales  [PDF]
Hani M. Alnawafleh, Feras Y. Fraige, Khalid E. Tarawneh, Ibrahim A. Sarairahc, Laila A. Al-Khatib
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation (JASMI) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jasmi.2016.63007
Abstract: Surface and subsurface oil shale (OS) rocks in Jordan have potential economic value for the country and still unutilized. This research paper focuses on central and southern OS deposits in Jordan. Brief characterization of four OS deposits is presented. Size distribution test and elemental analysis were performed. Shale oil was extracted via three solvation methods: Soxhlet extraction, extraction via mixing and stirring, and lastly super-critical fluid extraction. Major shale oil fractions were obtained from extract fractionation on chromatographic column. The nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy technique was used to study qualitatively the fractional composition of OS extract. Results show that all studied OS deposits have quite similar trend in their particle size distribution and their elemental composition. These OS deposits are found to be varying in their solvation behavior, fractional yield, and shale oil composition. Highest yield is obtained from polar solvents. The OS extraction via solvation processes is promising under certain extraction conditions such as super-critical conditions. The solvation variability of Jordanian OS indicates that different extraction techniques suit different OS deposits. Such variability should be considered in any future extraction options.
Dolomitization in Campanian Oil Shale Rocks from South-Western Jordan  [PDF]
Hani M. Alnawafleh, Khalid E. Tarawneh, Hani N. Khoury, Nafeth A. Abdelhadi, Osama Y. Shakkoury, Reyad A. Dwairi, Mazen N. Amaireh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2015.510061
Abstract: This work represents the first detailed study of an oil shale (OS) section from the Upper Campanian Amman Silicified Limestone (ASL) Formation in south-western part of Jordan. More than five meters of oil shale have been recorded. Using the petrography and geochemistry, this study aims to focus on such non-conventional types of oil shale rocks in Jordan and to shed some light on their composition and formational environment. Unlike oil shale from Maastrichtian to early Tertiary, this type of oil shale is highly dolomitized. The dolomite is diagenetic in origin. This oil shale type contains considerable amount of OM and remarkably enriched in some trace elements and shows quite low sulfur content. Results suggest that the formation of dolomite appears to be limited by the rate of organic matter oxidation.
Hydrochemistry and Quality Assessment of Water in Tannur Dam, Southern Jordan  [PDF]
Omar A. Al-Khashman, Hani M. Alnawafleh
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2020.101001
Abstract: The study was undertaken to assess the physicochemical and chemical quality of the Tannur dam water in southern Jordan. The water samples were collected in two intervals the first during May 2015 and the second during September 2015. All samples were analyzed for temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+), and major anions (Cl-, NO3-, HCO3- and SO42-). The hydrogeochemical analyses of thirty-six water samples were used to determine the properties and type of water in the Tannur dam. The ion concentration in the water samples was from dissolution of carbonate rocks and ion exchange processes in clay. The general chemistry of water samples was typical alkaline earth waters with prevailing bicarbonate chloride. The PHREEQC Hydrogeochemical modeling was used to obtain the saturation indices of specific mineral phases, which might be related to interaction with water and aquifer, and to identify the chemical species of the dissolved ions. Calcite and dolomite solubility were assessed in terms of saturation index where they show positive values indication oversaturated SI > 0. The hydrogeochemistry behavior is rather complicated and is affected by anthropogenic and natural sources. The positive correlation values between various parameters indicate that most of ions result from same lithological sources. The abundance of the major ions in water samples is in the following order: HCO3-> Ca2+
Geologic and economic potentials of minerals and industrial rocks in Jordan  [PDF]
Hani Alnawafleh, Khalid Tarawneh, Rami Alrawashdeh
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.56092

This work discusses status of the geologic and economic potentials of minerals and industrial rocks in Jordan. The major mineral resources are presented in details and the paper is designed to cover the lack of published data in this field. Geologically, the structural framework of Jordan is controlled largely by Arabian Nubian Shield in the south, block—faulted areas in the east, upwarping in north and east, and Wadi Araba-Dead Sea Transform Fault in the western part. The geologic environments include Precambrian crystalline basement (Late Proterozoic) of Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) that is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks at south-western part. Paleozoic rocks at southern and southeastern part consist of clastic minerals which are dominated by sandstone, whereas Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are widespread throughout southwestern, northern to southeastern parts of the country. They mainly consist of major industrial rocks and minerals such as phosphate, oil shale, limestone, dolomite, chalk, marble, gypsum, diatomite and tripoli. Cenozoic Era is composed of sedimentary and volcanic rocks in different parts of Jordan. There are more than twenty nonmetallic minerals and four main metallic deposits within the various geologic environments. This paper summarizes their distribution, chemical and mineralogical characteristics, in addition to their production statistics.

Geochemistry and Organic Petrography of Jordanian Sultani Oil Shale  [PDF]
Hani Alnawafleh, Khalid Tarawneh, George Siavalas, Kimon Christanis, Andreas Iordanidis
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.610089
Abstract: The Sultani oil shale (OS) deposit is considered as a major fossil fuel source in Jordan. Applying various petrographic and geochemical techniques, this paper aims to study the Sultani OS geochemical and organic petrographic features. Results show that Sultani OS is a bituminous limestone consisting of very fine-grained matrix with rippled micro-laminated texture and muddy material of cryptocrystalline micrite. The rock is rich in Cretaceous microfossil shells filled in organic matter (OM). The fillingOMis bitumen of the migrabitumen type. TheOMcontent reaches up to 17 wt.% with high oil-yielding capacity (up to 12 wt.%). High TOC values suggest that the Sultani OS has a very good source rock potential. Organic petrography shows lowOMmaturity level and reveals two varieties of vitrinite, namely primary and oxidized vitrinite. The latter is derived from terrestrial plant tissues. Additionally, liptinite macerals including alginite and to a lesser extent cutinite, also participate. Various diagenetic features such as pyrite replacement and bitumen thermal alteration have been recorded. Results suggest that Sultani OS is a marinite formed under marine conditions with limited contribution of terrestrialOMinput.
Geotechnical Characterization of Jordanian Limestone  [PDF]
Mohammad Dweirj, Feras Fraige, Hani Alnawafleh, Awaad Titi
Geomaterials (GM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2017.71001
Abstract: Full knowledge of the physical and mechanical behavior of limestone rocks is required for the safe design of structures. Little work has been done to characterize the physical and mechanical properties of Jordanian limestone especially under watery environment. Therefore, in this study the physical and mechanical properties of some Jordanian limestone were investigated. The limestone samples were collected from five different parts of the country. The porosity and dry density of the selected limestone were compared. The reduction on the compressive strength and tensile strength for dry, 50% and 100% water saturation were determined. All rock experienced a reduction on both the compressive strength and tensile strength as a function of saturation degree. Large reduction happens on the strength properties for the Zarka limestone than the other limestone when the samples are fully saturated.
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