The study of unit commitment (UC) aims to
find reasonable schedules for generators to optimize power systems’ operation. Many
papers have been published that solve UC through different methods. Articles
that systematically summarize UC problems’ progress in order to update researchers
interested in this field are needed. Because of its promising performance,
stochastic programming (SP) has become increasingly researched. Most papers,
however, present SP’s UC solving approaches differently, which masks their
relationships and makes it hard for new researchers to quickly obtain a general
idea. Therefore, this paper tries to give a structured bibliographic survey of
SP’s applications in UC problems.

Abstract:
Schaefer's fixed point theorem is used to study the controllability in an infinite delay system x ′ ( t ) = G ( t , x t ) + ( B u ) ( t ) . A compact map or homotopy is constructed enabling us to show that if there is an a priori bound on all possible solutions of the companion control system x ′ ( t ) = λ [ G ( t , x t ) + ( B u ) ( t ) ] , 0 < λ < 1 , then there exists a solution for λ = 1 . The a priori bound is established by means of a Liapunov functional or applying an integral inequality. Applications to integral control systems are given to illustrate the approach.

Abstract:
Schaefer's fixed point theorem is used to study the controllability in an infinite delay system . A compact map or homotopy is constructed enabling us to show that if there is an a priori bound on all possible solutions of the companion control system , then there exists a solution for . The a priori bound is established by means of a Liapunov functional or applying an integral inequality. Applications to integral control systems are given to illustrate the approach.

Abstract:
Schaefer's fixed point theorem is used to study the controllability in an infinite delay system x ￠ € 2(t)=G(t,xt)+(Bu)(t). A compact map or homotopy is constructed enabling us to show that if there is an a priori bound on all possible solutions of the companion control system x ￠ € 2(t)= [G(t,xt)+(Bu)(t)],0< <1, then there exists a solution for =1. The a priori bound is established by means of a Liapunov functional or applying an integral inequality. Applications to integral control systems are given to illustrate the approach.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to a study of the null controllability problems for one-dimensional linear degenerate wave equations through a boundary controller. First, the well-posedness of linear degenerate wave equations is discussed. Then the null controllability of some degenerate wave equations is established, when a control acts on the non-degenerate boundary. Different from the known controllability results in the case that a control acts on the degenerate boundary, any initial value in state space is controllable in this case. Also, an explicit expression for the controllability time is given. Furthermore, a counterexample on the controllability is given for some other degenerate wave equations.

Abstract:
A single stage ammonia-water absorption chiller with complete condensation is designed, built and tested. The apparatus is designed for a cooling capacity of 2814 W, which is obtained using electric heater as heating source. The thermodynamic models have been derived using the First and Second Laws. Calculated results are compared with experimental data. The results show that the cooling capacity of experimental apparatus is found between 1900 and 2200 W with the actual coefficient of performance (COP) between 0.32 and 0.36. The contribution of the components to internal entropy production is analyzed. It shows that the larger irreversibility is caused by spanning the largest temperature and dissipated thermal energy by heat transfer losses at the generator and evaporator. In the experimentation, the low pressure is lower than the designed value. This is a consequence of a large capacity in the falling film absorber which performs as expected. This decreases the evaporation pressure, and the evaporating temperature could be reduced to the designed value.

Abstract:
By the use of the Projection Pursuit method,we get a multivariate goodness-of-fit testwith the classical X~2-test statistic as an index.The asymptotic propeerties of the test are dis-cussed,and the asymptotic rejection region is obtained by bootstraping the test statistic.

Abstract:
In decision from experience, the source of probability information affects how probability is distorted in the decision task. Understanding how and why probability is distorted is a key issue in understanding the peculiar character of experience-based decision. We consider how probability information is used not just in decision-making but also in a wide variety of cognitive, perceptual, and motor tasks. Very similar patterns of distortion of probability/frequency information have been found in visual frequency estimation, frequency estimation based on memory, signal detection theory, and in the use of probability information in decision-making under risk and uncertainty. We show that distortion of probability in all cases is well captured as linear transformations of the log odds of frequency and/or probability, a model with a slope parameter, and an intercept parameter. We then consider how task and experience influence these two parameters and the resulting distortion of probability. We review how the probability distortions change in systematic ways with task and report three experiments on frequency distortion where the distortions change systematically in the same task. We found that the slope of frequency distortions decreases with the sample size, which is echoed by findings in decision from experience. We review previous models of the representation of uncertainty and find that none can account for the empirical findings.

Abstract:
Which sizes of nanoparticles embedded in a crystalline solid yield the lowest thermal conductivity? Nanoparticles have long been demonstrated to reduce the thermal conductivity of crystals by scattering phonons, but most previous works assumed the nanoparticles to have a single size. Here, we use optimization methods to show that the best nanoparticle size distribution to scatter the broad thermal phonon spectrum is not a similarly broad distribution but rather several discrete peaks at well-chosen nanoparticle radii. For SiGe, the best size distribution yields a thermal conductivity below that of amorphous silicon. Further, we demonstrate that a simplified distribution yields nearly the same low thermal conductivity and can be readily fabricated. Our work provides important insights into how to manipulate the full spectrum of phonons and will guide the design of more efficient thermoelectric materials.