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From Garbage to Biomaterials: An Overview on Egg Shell Based Hydroxyapatite
Idris Abdulrahman,Hamzat Ibiyeye Tijani,Bashir Abubakar Mohammed,Haruna Saidu,Hindatu Yusuf,Mohammed Ndejiko Jibrin,Sulaiman Mohammed
Journal of Materials , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/802467
Abstract: The conversion of waste obtained from agricultural processes into biocompatible materials (biomaterials) used in medical surgery is a strategy that will add more value in waste utilization. This strategy has successfully turned the rather untransformed wastes into high value products. Eggshell is an agricultural waste largely considered as useless and is discarded mostly because it contributes to pollution. This waste has potential for producing hydroxyapatite, a major component found in bone and teeth. Hydroxyapatite is an excellent material used in bone repair and tissue regeneration. The use of eggshell to generate hydroxyapatite will reduce the pollution effect of the waste and the subsequent conversion of the waste into a highly valuable product. In this paper, we reviewed the utilization of this agricultural waste (eggshell) in producing hydroxyapatite. The process of transforming eggshell into hydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite is an environmentally friendly process. Eggshell based hydroxyapatite and nanohydroxyapatite stand as good chance of reducing the cost of treatment in bone repair or replacement with little impact on the environment. 1. Introduction Agricultural waste is any waste being generated from different farming processes in accumulative concentration. Adequate utilization of agricultural waste reduces environmental problems caused by irresponsible disposal of the waste. The management of agricultural wastes is indispensable and a crucial strategy in global waste management. Waste of any kind in the environment when its concentration is in excess can become a critical factor for humans, animals, and vegetation [1]. The nature, quantity, and type of agricultural waste generated vary from country to country. The search for an effective way to properly manage agricultural waste will help protect the environment and the health quality. For sustainable development, wastes should be recycled, reused, and channelled towards the production of value added products. This is to protect the environment on one side and on the other side to obtain value added products while establishing a zero waste standard. The utilization of the waste is a priority today in order to achieve sustainable development [2]. One way that adds great value to agricultural waste is its utilization as a biomaterial used in medical surgery and therapeutics. The production of biocompatible material or biomaterial from agrowaste has added a different dimension to the utilization of agricultural waste for value added product. This is possible because some of this waste
Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Metals Contamination in an Urban Drainage System: A Case Study of Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria  [PDF]
Moshood N. TIJANI, Shinichi ONODERA
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.13021
Abstract: With increasing urban population, attention had been focused on environmental degradation of urban drain-age system with respect to trace/heavy metal contaminations. Such concerns underlie the ever-increasing impacts of urbanization and industrial activities on urban watershed in the developing regions of the world, especially in areas with inadequate land-use plan and poor waste disposal and management practices. Hence, this study highlights the hydrogeochemical assessment of surface water and bottom-sediment samples from an urban drainage system in Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria with respect to trace metals contaminations. The results show that the surface water samples have generally low TDS with average value of 362mg/l, while the average dissolved concentrations of the trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As and Cr) vary from 0.01 to 0.5mg/l. Cu, Cr and As exhibit concentrations similar to the local background concentrations (LBC) in the pristine stream water with low single metal contamination factor (CF ≈ 1). Pb, Zn and Ni are 5 folds enriched with contamination factor (CF) of >5 indicating moderate to high contamination. For the sediment phase, the adsorbed concentrations of the trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Cr and Co) vary between 0.1 to 3.1mg/kg. These represent about 1 to 3% of the respective total metal concentrations with average values of 18.2– 533.4mg/kg. Also low anthropogenic factor, AF (0.002 to 0.08) and mostly negative values (–5 to –15) of Mueller’s geo-accumulation index (Igeo) for adsorbed metal contents in the sediments suggest dominant geo-genic controls. However, the total metals concentrations in the sediment phase have high estimated AF of 1.1 to 9.3 and positive values of the estimated Igeo (0.9–2.0) and metal contamination index (MCI) of 2.5–8.3. All these suggest a medium to high level enrichment (of 2 to 10 factor) for most of the metals with respect to the local background concentration (LBC) in the basement bedrock units (with the exception of Cr and Ni). This is consistent with the preferential metal enrichment in the sediment phase as indicated by the estimated parti-tioning/distribution coefficient, Kd of >1 exhibited by the total metal concentrations in the stream sediment. Nonetheless, the correlated high peaks of electrical conductivity of the stream water samples and adsorbed concentrations of some trace metals within the urban stretches are indications of point source inputs of un-treated sewage into the drainage system.
Chemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Dindefello Plain Area in South-Eastern Senegal  [PDF]
Seybatou Diop, Moshood N. Tijani
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.619160
Abstract: This study was to clarify the main mechanisms of shallow groundwater mineralization in the Dindefello Plain Area. Water composition data obtained in this study were subjected to aqueous speciation calculations together with data plotting on key diagrams so as to create work assumptions. Hypothesized reaction models of the processes of chemical weathering of carbonates and silicate minerals under the carbon dioxide regime were proposed and tested by selecting two water sample analyses interpreted as “starting” and “ending” water composition along a hydrologic flow line, and then running the PHREEQC (version 2) batch modeling procedure, to simulate chemical balances and compositional variations of groundwater within the geochemical system. For the flow path data discussed here, there was close agreement between the model results and the observed hydrochemistry, and so the proposed geochemical evolution model was deemed reliable.
Acute flaccid paralysis: a five–year review of cases managed by physiotherapy at the University College Hospital, Ibadan
TK Hamzat, TT Omotade
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: A 5-year (1999-2004) review of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases managed at the physiotherapy clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan Nigeria was carried out. Collection of data involved retrieving the records of all patients seen at the physiotherapy clinic during the study period, from which the paediatric cases were sorted out. The treatment records cards of patients with acute flaccid paralysis were identified and reviewed. Information on age, gender, immunization history, and specific physician diagnosis and discharge practice were collated. A total of 757 paediatric cases reviewed out of which 132 (17.4%) were AFP case, with mean age of 44.31± 33.03 months and a 1.2:1.0 male: female ratio. Sciatic nerve palsy accounted for majority (72.0%) of the AFP; only 43.2% of the patients had completed immunization before the onset; majority of the cases (78.8%) were referred to physiotherapy within 6 months of onset and the discharge pattern revealed that only 9.8% of the patients were formally discharged. With injection palsy accounting for majority of the AFP cases, the need for caution. In administration of intramuscular injections at the buttocks of children with febrile illnesses is suggested. Importance of adequate documentation of clinical information by clinicians is also emphasised. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 13 (1-2) 2008: pp. 28-32
The London handicap scale: validation of a Yoruba (Nigerian) version among stroke survivors
T Hamzat, G Peters
African Journal of Neurological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Objective To evaluate the validity of a Yoruba translated version of the London Handicap Scale (LHS). The LHS is a valid and reliable measure of participation that has been validated in different cultures, but not among Yoruba speaking people of West Africa. Methods A validation study which involved 20 post-stroke patients receiving Physiotherapy on out-patients basis as part of their rehabilitation program. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling technique between February and May, 2008. The English version of the LHS was translated into Yoruba, the language spoken by the Yoruba people of the southwestern Nigeria and other parts of West Africa using a forwardbackward translation process. The English and Yoruba versions of the LHS were completed by the participants with a two-week interval between the administrations of the two scales. Construct validity of the Yoruba LHS was assessed by testing its correlation (using Spearman’s rank order correlation) with the English version. Results Total scores on the Yoruba translated version of the LHS correlated significantly with that of the English version (rho = 0.55; p=0.002). Correlation of the domain scores on both scales were significantly correlated with the exception of 2 domains. Conclusion The Yoruba LHS is a valid translation of the English LHS and may be used for the assessment of participation of stroke survivors who comprehend Yoruba language.
Interaction between anti-hypertensive and non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs: implications in management of osteoarthritis and opinion on a compromise therapy
TK Hamzat, AO Ajala
Internet Journal of Medical Update - EJOURNAL , 2010,
Abstract: The premise for this article is that a significant proportion of patients presenting in the clinic with osteoarthritis have hypertension as co-morbidity. A common drug of choice in managing symptoms of osteoarthritis including those affecting the knee joint is the Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) groups. It has been reported however that NSAIDs diminish the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs and may lead to an ineffective hypertension therapy. In order to avoid complications in the health of the patient with concomitant hypertension and osteoarthritis and who are on both antihypertensive and NSAIDs, it becomes imperative to consider using non-pharmacologic approaches such as physiotherapy in managing the symptoms of osteoarthritis in this group of patients and thereby maximizing the effects of their antihypertensive therapy. This is more so that information exists on efficacy of physiotherapy in form of therapeutic exercises and electrotherapeutic modalities in management of clinical features of osteoarthritis. KEY WORDS: NSAIDS; Anti-hypertensive drugs; Interaction; Osteoarthritis; Management
The effects of static stretch duration on the flexibility of hamstring muscles
NA Odunaiya, TK Hamzat, OF Ajayi
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2005,
Abstract: The effects of duration of a static stretching protocol (Intervention) on hamstrings tightness were evaluated. Sixty purposively sampled subjects with unilateral hamstring tightness that had no history of low back and lower extremity dysfunctions that necessitated medical intervention participated in the study. They we re randomly assigned into one of 5 intervention and one control groups. Groups a, b, c, d, e subjects had their hamstrings passively stretched for 120, 90, 60, 30, and 15 seconds respectively, while group f served as control. Th is intervention was carried out on alternate days for 6 consecutive weeks. Knee extension deficit (KED) was measured for all groups at baseline, weekly and 7 days post cessation of the intervention (carry-over). Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and paired t-test at 0.05 alpha. A significant reduction (P<0.05) was observed in the KED of subjects in all the intervention groups across the 6 intervention weeks. There was no significant difference between the immediate post intervention and carry-over KED values (p>0.05). The study shows that statically stretching tight hamstrings for any duration between 15 and 120 seconds on alternate days for 6 weeks would significantly increase its flexibility. The effect was also sustained for up to 7 days post intervention.
Balance Performance of Professional Footballers with Long-term Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Injury
OO Ogwumike, A Tijani
African Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Lower limb musculoskeletal injury (LLMI) is a common occurrence in athletes. Balance impairments have been implicated as contributory to poor balance performance following LLMI. It is usually expected that once the initial rehabilitation period is over, subsequent recovery should continue until the pre-injury state is reached. Some studies on certain physically-active individuals and amateur athletes have reported that this is usually not the case. This study therefore investigated balance performance (BPf) in professional footballers with longterm LLMI, the effect of limb dominance on BPf and comparison of BPf in injured footballers with their uninjured counterparts. A sample of 115 professional footballers – 104 males and 11 females, participated in the study and they consisted of two groups - injured group of participants (IGP) and uninjured group of participants (UGP). Balance performance (BPf) was assessed using the Stork balance stand test. The time in seconds for which the participant is able to stand on the ball of the foot of one leg is indicative of the BPf for that lower limb. The results indicated that poor balance performance was observed in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb in IGP (P=0.000). BPf was poorer in the dominant limb of IGP compared with the dominant limb of UGP (P= 0.000). Time lapse since injury did not have any effect on BPf (P=0.868). It was concluded that balance problems persist in professional footballers with LLMI irrespective of time lapse since injury.
Assessment of the hepatic effects, heamatological effect and some phytochemical constituents of Ximenia americana (Leaves, stem and root) extracts
DB James, AO Owolabi, H Ibiyeye, J Magaji, YA Ikugiyi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The aqueous extracts of the leaf, stem bark and root of Ximenia americana was evaluated for its phytochemical constituents. A study was also conducted with 20 albino rats (Wistar strain) weighing between 100-130 g to access for hepatic effect and haematological effect. The extracts were administered every day for a period of 21 days. Group 1 was the control animals and those of groups 2 and 3 and 4 were administered 0.5 mg/rat/day of each of the different extracts. The results showed that the stem extract significantly (P<0.05) elevated the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALAT), aspartate transaminase (ASAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), the root extracts significantly (p<0.05) elevated both the ALT and ALK-P. Except for root extract which significantly (p<0.05) reduced albumin, there was a non-significant (P>0.05) reduction in the serum concentration of total protein and albumin for all the extracts. Haematological parameters revealed no significant (P>0.05) change, while the root extract significantly (p<0.05) increase the weight of the animals compared to the animals administered leaf and stem extracts for the period of 3 weeks of administration. There was significant (p<0.05) increase in liver and kidney weight for the animals administered the extracts compared to control. The root extracts have significantly (p<0.05) higher content of all phytochemical constituents determined.
Diagnosis Study of the Louga-Ouarack-Ndoyene R31 Regional Road (Senegal)  [PDF]
Seybatou Diop, Meissa Fall, Adama Dione, Moshood N. Tijani
Geomaterials (GM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2015.51004
Abstract: The degree of structural damage of the Louga-Ouarack-Ndoyene R31 regional road was surveyed using Lacroix deflectographe and geotechnical testing, in order to recommend possible rehabilitation measures aimed at maintaining the high level of service over the projected life span of the road. The data processing and interpretation were essentially based on the French standards and specifications, through which synthetic variables were generated with a qualitative significance and on the basis of which the extent of repairs and rehabilitation works to be undertaken were suggested. The decision grid thus produced, revealed road structure quality indices of mostly Q3, Q4, and Q5 types for a segment length of 36.954 km (equivalent to some 69.44% of the total road section), which justifies some major reinforcement works. The remaining part of the road section (nearly 30.56% with road quality indices ≤ Q2) is still in acceptable condition, requiring only some minor maintenance works. The rehabilitation costs were estimated to be of the order of 5,352,000,000 (five billion three hundred fifty-two million) CFA francs, based on local market price conditions.
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