Abstract:
Background The pathogenesis of primary tuberculous pleurisy is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immunogenic reaction to a few mycobacterial antigens entering the pleural space rather than direct tissue destruction by mycobacterial proliferation. Although it has been shown that pulmonary tuberculosis induces 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in active lesions, little is known about the application of FDG positron emission/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) to the management of primary tuberculous pleurisy. Case presentation We report a case of asymptomatic primary tuberculous pleurisy presenting with diffuse nodular pleural thickening without distinct pleural effusion and parenchymal lung lesions mimicking malignant mesothelioma. An initial FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated multiple lesions of intense FDG uptake in the right pleura and thoracoscopic biopsy of pleural tissue revealed caseous granulomatous inflammation. The patient received antituberculous therapy for 6 months, with clearly decreased positive signals on a repeated FDG PET/CT scan. Conclusion FDG PET/CT imaging may be useful for evaluating disease activity in tuberculous pleurisy patients with an unknown time of onset.

In this paper, we present an approach to establish efficient and scalable service provisioning in the cloud environment using P2P-based infrastructure for storing, sharing and discovering services. Unlike most other P2P-based approaches, it allows flexible search queries, since all of them are executed against internal database presenting at each overlay node. Various issues concerning using this approach in the cloud environment, such as load-balancing, queuing, dealing with skewed data and dynamic attributes, are addressed in the paper. The infrastructure proposed in the paper can serve as a base for creating robust, scalable and reliable cloud systems, able to fulfill client’s QoS requirements, and at the same time introduce more efficient utilization of resources to the cloud provider.

Abstract:
Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α -Proteobacteria class can produce C 40-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4′)-ketolase (4(4′)-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3′)-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2′)-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2′)-hydroxylated carotenoids).

Abstract:
We compute the "moments" and its continuous anaougue of the random variable $\N^r \ni (k_1, k_2, ..., k_r) \mapsto \gcd(n,k_1k_2... k_r) \in \N$ by a purely elementary method. This generalizes a result of Kurokawa-Ochiai, which computed its "average" using some analysis involving L-function.

Abstract:
We compute the "moments" and its continuous analogue of the random variable $\N \ni l \mapsto \gcd(l,n_1) \gcd(l, n_2) ... \gcd(l, n_k) \in \N$ by a purely elementary method. This generalizes a result of Deitmar-Koyama-Kurokawa, which computed its "average" using some analysis involving L-function. We show this average is nothing but the invariant $\mu(A) := \sum_{a\in A} \frac{1}{| a |}$ for a finite abelian group $A = \prod_{j=1)^k Z/n_j$. In ArXiv-0910.3879v1, this invariant plays an important role in the Soul\'e type zeta functions for Noetherian $F_1$-schemes in the sense of Connes-Consani.

Abstract:
Motivated by recent work of Deitmar-Koyama-Kurokawa, Kurokawa-Ochiai, Connes-Consani, and the author, we define some multivariable deformed zeta functions of Hurwitz-Igusa type for a Noetherian $\F_1$-scheme $X$ in the sense of Connes-Consani. Our zeta functions generalize both the zeta functions studied by Deitmar-Koyama-Kurokawa, Kurokawa-Ochiai, and the log derivative of the modified Soul\'e type zeta function Connes-Consani. We give an explicit presentation for these zeta functions using the Hurwitz zeta functions, and so, we can derive its meromorphicity. When restricted to the log derivative of the modified Soul\'e type zeta functions, we find our invariant $\mu(A)$ for a finite abelian group $A$, introduced in ArXiv-0907.0918v2, plays an extremely important role in the Soul\'e type zeta functions.

Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons from ^{12}C nuclei had been performed within the framework of both the optical model and single folding model at different proton energies; 17, 30.3, 40, 49.48 and 61.4 MeV. We have obtained the global potential parameters which could fairly reproduce the experimental data for p+^{12}C elastic scattering at the aforementioned energies. The radial and energy dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the potential were calculated. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions in the whole angular range was obtained using both phenomenological approach (Optical Model), and semi-microscopic approach (Single Folding). In single folding calculations, the real part of the potential was calculated from a more fundamental basis by the folding method in which the NN interaction V_{NN}(r), is folded into the density of the target nuclei and supplemented with a phenomenological imaginary potential. The obtained normalization factor N_{r} is in the range of 0.75-0.9.

In past decades, there has been a
growing interest in the discussion and study of using underwater acoustic
channel as the physical layer for communication systems, ranging from
point-to-point communications to underwater multicarrier modulation networks. A
series of review papers were already available to provide a history of the development of the field until the end of the last decade. In
this paper, we attempt to provide an overview of the key developments, both
theoretical and applied, in the particular topics regarding multicarrier
communication for underwater acoustic communication such as the channel and Doppler
shift estimation, video and image transmission throw multicarrier techniques,
etc. This paper also includes acoustic
propagation properties in seawater and underwater acoustic channel
representation.

We have measured the angular distributions for ^{12}C ion beam elastically scattered from ^{12}C target of thickness 17.4 μg/cm^{2} at energies 15, 18 and 21 MeV which is close to the Coulomb barrier energy for ^{12}C+^{12}C nuclear system. The elastic scattering of ^{12}C beam on^{12}C was analysed also at different energies (139.5, 158.8, 180, 240, 288.6, 300, 360 and 420 MeV) from literature in order to obtain the global optical potential parameters, which could fairly reproduce the experimental data. The experimental results were analysed within the framework of both the optical model and the double folding potential obtained with different density-dependent NN interactions which give the corresponding values of the nuclear incompressibility K in the Hartree-Fock calculation of nuclear matter. The agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions in the whole angular range is fairly good.

Abstract:
Coinhibitory molecules such as CTLA-4, PD-1 and BTLA negatively regulate immune responses. Multiple studies indicate that the deficiency or mutation of coinhibitory molecules leads to the development of autoimmune diseases in mice and humans, indicating that the negative signals from coinhibitory molecules are crucial for the prevention of autoimmunity. In some conditions, the administration of decoy coinhibitory receptors (e.g., CTLA-4 Ig) or mAb against coinhibitory molecules suppresses the responses of self-reactive T cells in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, modulation of coinhibitory signals seems to be an attractive approach to induce tolerance in autoimmune diseases in humans where the disease-inducing self-antigens are not known. Particularly, administration of CTLA-4 Ig has shown great promise in animal models of autoimmune diseases and has been gaining increasing attention in clinical investigation in several autoimmune diseases in humans.