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OALib Journal期刊

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Evolution of plant breeding
Hallauer, Arnel R.;
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-70332011000300001
Abstract: plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plants more productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. the evolution of civilizations paralleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. the reason may be lack of understanding of what plant breeding encompasses. the concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it was formulated, but without losing the essence of being art and science of manipulating plants for man. this review discusses the evolution of the concepts and the methods of plant breeding, here divided arbitrarily into selection based on phenotypes, breeding values and genotypes. no matter how big the pool of genetic information in recent years, the phenotype will continues to be important in the present and future.
Evolution of plant breeding
Arnel R. Hallauer
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: Plant breeding is considered one of the longest ongoing activities undertaken by humans, who select plantsmore productive and useful to themselves and the animals for at least 10,000 years ago. The evolution of civilizationsparalleled the success of plant breeding, although this has not been recognized by the public. The reason may be lack ofunderstanding of what plant breeding encompasses. The concept of plant breeding evolved, depending on the time it wasformulated, but without losing the essence of being art and science of manipulating plants for man. This review discusses theevolution of the concepts and the methods of plant breeding, here divided arbitrarily into selection based on phenotypes,breeding values and genotypes. No matter how big the pool of genetic information in recent years, the phenotype will continuesto be important in the present and future.
Human cytomegalovirus IE1 promoter/enhancer drives variable gene expression in all fiber types in transgenic mouse skeletal muscle
Patricia L Hallauer, Kenneth EM Hastings
BMC Genetics , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-1-1
Abstract: We produced two lines of transgenic mice carrying the CMV IE1/ β-galactosidase construct CMVLacZ, and analyzed transgene expression and fiber type by histochemical analysis of hindlimb muscle sections. In both lines CMVLacZ was expressed in all four major fiber types: type I (slow) and types IIA, IIB and IIX (fast). There was no unique pattern of fiber-type-preferential expression; fiber-type quantitative differences were observed but details varied between muscle regions and between lines. Both lines showed similar fiber-type-independent regional differences in overall expression levels, and a high level of within-fiber-type variability of expression, even among nearby fibers. The soleus muscle showed strong expression and comparatively little within-fiber-type or between-fiber-type variability.The CMV IE1 promoter/enhancer is not fiber-type-restricted and can be useful for driving germ-line transgene expression in all four fiber types. However, not all fibers express the gene at high levels due in part to regional differences in overall expression levels, and to a high level of within-fiber-type variability. Given the multinucleate syncitial nature of muscle fibers, it is not likely that this variability is due to variegating heterochromatinization. The soleus muscle would make a suitable subject for near-uniform experimental gene expression driven by CMV IE1 elements.Versatile genetic manipulation of skeletal muscle through expression of experimental germ-line transgenes requires knowledge of the expression characteristics of diverse promoter/enhancer elements in the various skeletal muscle fiber types.Rodent limb and axial muscles contain four major fiber types, one slow-contracting (type I) and three fast-contracting (types IIA, IIB, and IIX (also called IID)), that differ in activity patterns [1] and in contractile and metabolic properties [2,3,4,5]. Each of the four principal fiber types expresses a distinct myosin heavy chain gene that largely determines fas
Le croisement romanov et finnois sur l'aragonaise : résultats préliminaires d'engraissement et de reproduction
M Valls Ortiz, Y Cognie, MD Valdemoro, J Hallauer
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1977, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-9-1-129b
Abstract:
Evaluation des aptitudes laitières des brebis de race pure ou croisées Romanov
JC Flamant, B Bonaiti, J Hallauer, Michèle Jacquin, Suzanne Crochez, JJ Chambeyron
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1979, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-11-3-223
Abstract:
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