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Comparison of the effects of chronic administration of morphine and tramadol in infancy on acute Pentylenetetrazol–induced seizure in prepubertal rats
Gholami M,Hajizadeh-Moghaddam A,Saboory E
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Background: It is demonstrated that morphine and tramadol affects seizure but the mode of action of these drugs on seizure has not been compared yet with increasing of age. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of exposure to these drugs on Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure in immature rat.Methods: Male neonate rats were randomly chosen and divided into three groups namely Saline (n=21), Morphine (n=12) and Tramadol (n=13). On postnatal days 8-14, Saline group received normal saline and two other groups received morphine and tramadol with additive doses, respectively. On postnatal days 22-28, the saline treated rats divided into three subgroups and received saline (n=8), morphine (n=8) or tramadol (n=5). Morphine treated rats received saline or morphine (each n=6), and tramadol treated rats received saline (n=7) or tramadol (n=6). At postnatal day 29, they were evaluated for PTZ-induced seizure.Results: Number of tonic-clonic seizure was increased in all groups compared with control and tramadol+saline groups (P<0.05). Duration of tonic-clonic seizure was decreased in tramadol+saline group compared with other tramadol groups (P<0.05). Latency of tonic-clonic seizurewas decreased in tramadol+saline group compared with control rats (P<0.05), But it was increased in saline+tramadol group compared with other groups except to saline group (P<0.05). Latency of myoclonic contractions in saline+morphine and saline+tramadol groups was lower than in control rats (P<0.05).Conclusion: Similar age-related changes may occur inchronic exposure to morphine and tramadol in the neonatal period which leads to an increase in severity of seizures in rats on postnatal days 22-28. The effect of morphine and tramadol does not show any significant difference.
The Effect of Six Weeks-Voluntary Wheel Running on Brain Amyloid Beta (1-42) Levels of Diabetic Rats
Ziya Fallah-Mohammadi,Mojtaba Ebrahimzadeh,Akbar Hajizadeh-Moghaddam
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Amyloid Beta (1-42) is derived from amyloid precursor protein and plays a critical role in AD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running on brain Amyloid beta (1-42) in the diabetic rats induced with alloxan. Materials and Methods: 28 male rats weight 185±1 were assigned randomly to 4 groups (N=7): normal control (C), training (T), control-diabetic (CD) and diabetic-training (DT). Diabetes was induced with injecting Alloxan (120 mg/kg dissolved in saline) intraperitoneal. Results: 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running decreased the cortex Aβ1-42 in T and DT groups. Aβ1-42 levels significantly decreased in the T and DT in compare with C and CD (p<0.001), respectively. Also Aβ1-42 levels significantly increased in the CD in compare with C (p<0.001).Conclusion: voluntary exercise had positive effects on decreasing of Aβ1-42 levels during 6 weeks. Therefore it can be recommended as therapeutic strategy for diabetes.
An investigation of the neuroprotective effects of Curcumin in a model of Homocysteine - induced oxidative stress in the rat’s brain
A Ataie,M Sabetkasaei,A Haghparast,A Hajizadeh Moghaddam
DARU : Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of them. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages and modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. In this study, the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of the natural polyphenolic antioxidant compound, curcumin against homocysteine (Hcy) neurotoxicity was investigated. "nMethods: Curcumin (5, 15, 45 mg/kg) was injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) once daily for a period of 10 days beginning 5 days prior to Hcy (0.2 μmol/μl) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection in rats. Biochemical and behavioral studies, including passive avoidance learning and locomotor activity tests were studied 24 hrs after the last curcumin or its vehicle injection. The cell density of hippocampus layers and apoptosis in rats' hippocampi by immunohistochical methods were also studied. Results and major conclusion:Results indicated that Hcy could induce lipid peroxidation and increase Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Super Oxide Anion (SOA) levels in rat's brain.Additionally, Hcy impaired memory retention in passive avoidance learning test. However, curcumin decreased MDA and SOA levels significantly and improved learning and memory in rats. On the other hand Hcy could induce cell death and apoptosis in rats' hippocampi which was inhibited by curcumin. These results suggest that Hcy may induce lipid peroxidation in rat's brain. and polyphenol treatment (curcumin) improves learning and memory deficits by protecting the nervous system against Oxidative stress.
Renoprotective effect of Eryngium caucasicum in Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic mice
Eslami S.H.,Ebrahimzadeh M.A.,Moghaddam Hajizadeh A.,Nabavi S.F.
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/abs1101157e
Abstract: Recent studies show that hydrogen peroxide free radicals have an important role in the renal damage induced by Gentamicin. Previously we studied the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of Eryngium caucasicum. This work was conducted to evaluate the possible renoprotective effect of Eryngium caucasicum against Gentamicin-induced renotoxicity. Extracts at the doses 200 and 400 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days, by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) offered renoprotective action by change in the blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum urea and creatinine. Results show that an extract at 400 mg/kg/ day shows better activity than other tested samples. In conclusion, the extracts showed significant renoprotective activity compared with the control group.
Effect of chronic morphine exposure during the neonatal period on the anxiety like behavior of immature rats
Morteza Gholami,Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Several studies have reported anti-anxiety effects of morphine in adult rats. The present study examined the effect of chronic morphine injections in infancy and before puberty on anxiety-like behavior in immature rats. Methods: Neonate rats (n=35) were randomly chosen and divided into two groups. On postnatal days 8-14, one group received saline and the other one received morphine. On postnatal day 21, each group was divided into subgroups. These subgroups received either morphine or saline according to the type of group on postnatal days 22-28. Finally, on postnatal days 22 and 28, rate of anxiety was studied in a plus maze. Results: On day 24 after birth, morphine increased percentage of open arm time in all groups (P<0.001). This percentage on day 28 was highest for morphine groups compared with the control group (P<0.001). The number of open arm entry on day 24 after birth was significantly increased, for both groups treated with morphine (P<0.05). The greatest difference was observed on day 28 for re-treated rats with fixed dose of morphine compared to the control group (P<0.001). Locomotor activity on days 24 and 28 after birth for both groups treated with morphine was more than the other groups (P <0.05). Conclusion: Chronic morphine administration in the neonatal period caused reduced anxiety-like behavior in immature rats. Also, re-exposure to morphine at a fixed dose had an age related anti-anxiety effect that increased in older rats.
The study of the neuroprotective effects of curcumin, against homocysteine intracerebroventricular injection –induced cognition impairment and oxidative stress in the rat
Masoumeh Sabetkasaei,amin ataie,Abbas Haghparast,Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages and modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. Methods: In this study, we investigated the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of the polyphenolic antioxidant compound, Curcumin against homocysteine (Hcy) neurotoxicity. Curcumin (5, 15, 45 mg/kg) was injected intraperitonealy once daily for a period of 10 days beginning 5 days prior to Hcy (0.2 μmol/μl) intracerebroventricular injection in rats. Biochemical and behavioral studies, including passive avoidance learning and locomotor activity tests were studied 24 h after the last curcumin or its vehicle injection. Also Histopathological studies and cell dencity in different regions of hippocampus was investigated. Results: Hcy could induce lipid peroxidation and increase MDA and SOA levels in rats' brain. Additionally, Hcy impaired memory retention in passive avoidance learning test. However, Curcumin treatment decreased MDA and SOA levels significantly as well as improved learning and memory in rats. Histopathological analysis also indicated that Hcy could decrease hippocampus cell count and Curcumin inhibited this toxic effect. Conclusion: These results suggest that Hcy may induce lipid peroxidation in rats' brain and decrease hippocampus cells. Also polyphenol treatment (Curcumin) has the ability to improve learning and memory deficits by protecting the nervous system against Oxidative stress. Keywords: Homocysteine, Curcumin, Lipid peroxidation, Oxidative Stress
Decreased Uncoupling Protein 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) mRNA expression by endurance exercise training with and without chronic administration of nandrolone in rat heart
Gholamreza Bayat,Sohrab Hajizadeh,Mohammad Javan,Mahdi Forouzandeh Moghaddam
Physiology and Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: The effect of regular exercise in decreasing the incidence of heart diseases is well known. The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with cardiovascular disorders. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) transport protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane; thereby proton gradient can be diminished by the action of UCPs. This process will result in the uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP production. The goal of this study was to investigate whether UCP2 and UCP3 are involved in the mechanisms of AAS-induced cardiac damage in the rat heart. Methods: In the current study, adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=8): Control, vehicle, nandrolone, exercise, exercise- nandrolone. Rats in the exercise groups were submitted to a progressive running program on a treadmill, 5 days a week for 10 weeks. Rats in the nandrolone and exercise- nandrolone groups received a weekly intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg), while those in the vehicle group received Arachiz oil as vehicle. Relative mRNA expression of UCP2 and UCP3 were determined with real-time RT- PCR. Results: The data showed that chronic administration of nandrolone significantly up-regulated UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA in rat heart and endurance training induced a decrease in the expression of UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA with or without presence of nandrolone. Conclusion: It may be concluded that chronic nandrolone treatment causes an increase in the expression of UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA. Thus, it might decrease energy metabolism efficiency by impairment of ATP production. Physical activity may decrease the adverse effects of nandrolone by down-regulation of the UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression.
Assessment of Expanded program on immunization for mothers and children under 2 years old in Shahriar
Rezaipour,A. Granmayeh,M. Kazemnejad,A. Hajizadeh
Hayat Journal of Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery , 2004,
Abstract: Introduction: Immunization is the most effective means of improving health. In the absence of a proper and regular immunization program, people and especially children will be left at high risk of many infectious diseases. This study was designed to assess Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) for mothers and children under 2 years old in Shahriar, South west of Tehran. Materials and Methods: This research was a cross-sectional study. standard cluster sampling was applied to select 210 children in the age group 18-24 months old and 240 women with a child less than 1 year of age who were resident in Shahriar city. Standard formats were used for collection of the data. Descriptive and analytic tests (chi squares, Fisher exact-test, t test, ANOVA, bivariate and logistic regression module) were applied to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that vaccination coverage in children was over 90 percent. 17.6 percent of the children were partially vaccinated and 41.4 percent were vaccinated completely but with more than one-month delay. The important character which was strongly associated with more than one month delay in immunization was center of childhood immunization. Although 83.8% of women with a child under 1 year age had received twice tetanus immunizations, only 13.3% of women had obtained the complete series of five immunization. The character which was associated significantly with dT immunization status was the length of time that mother had been living in Shahriar. Conclusion: There are some barriers in vaccination delivery, including unefficient recall and follow up systems and scattered records of dT vaccination. These factors were statistically associated with immunization status and therefore some proper solutions against these barriers should be introduced. It is now time for a boost to be given to both quality and sustainability of appropriate immunization programs.
Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Cryptosporidiosis in Young Children in Iran
A.A. Moghaddam
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: : The present study was conducted during the period May 2003 to October 2003 in 616 children less than three years of age with and without diarrheal disease presenting at the pediatric clinic of teaching hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran. Single stool specimens were collected from 515 diarrheic and 99 non-diarrheic children. Two smears were made from each stool samples and were stained by a modified Ziehl Neelsen technique. Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) were detected in 10.4% of children. The C. parvum infection rate was significantly higher in diarrheic children (11.6%) than in non-diarrheic children (4.0%). C. parvum was observed more frequently in stool samples of children who lived in rural areas (15.2%) than those who lived in urban areas (7.2%). In regard to the presence of animals, the infection rate was 18.5% among children who lived in association with animals in comparison with 8.2% among those who lived in compounds with no animals. The majority of C. parvum cases occurred in children between the ages of 0-12 months (11.9%), followed by in children between the ages of 13-24 months (9.2%) and in children between the ages of 25-36 months (3.0%). The data suggest that C. parvum is relatively endemic in young children and that Cryptosporidium may be an important pathogen associated with diarrhea in young children.
Survival rate in MI patients
F. Amani,E. Hajizadeh,A. Hoseinian
Koomesh , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Today, heart diseases are the most common mortality causes in many of the worldcountries. According to current statistics, mortality rate from MI have been increased in Iran. The aimof this study was to determine survival rate and its effective cause in MI patients.Material and Methods: This analytical-descriptive study was performed on 800 MI patients inArdabil Bouali hospital. One year follow-up was carried out for all patiens and data collected througha questionnaire. The reliability and validity of questionnaire had been earlier evaluated usingCronbach's alpha in 30 samples pilot study. Data analysis was caried out by statistical methods suchas: Kaplan-Maier for survival rate and log-rank test for comparison survival mean in two groups usingSPSS software. Cox regression model and survival graph was used for predictive effective causes onsurvival rate.Results: Age mean of patients was. For one-year follow-up, mortality rate was 10.5% for allpatients. 72.8% of patients were male and 27.2% female. 47.4% of patient was smoker, 33.4% have aHTN history, 18.1% were diabetic and 15.3% had high lipid. Survival rate in first ten days, first monthand a year following MI was 0.95, 0.93 and 0.91, respectively. Effective causes in patient’s survivalrate were DM, HTN, SK and EF.Discussion: knowing survival rate and effective causes in MI patients, we can provide a betterservice as well as spatially works to control MI and decrease mortality rate from MI and also increasesurvival time in patients.
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