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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1013 matches for " Hajime Kawahara "
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The axis ratio distribution of X-ray clusters observed by XMM-Newton
Hajime Kawahara
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/719/2/1926
Abstract: We derive the axis ratio distribution of X-ray clusters using the XMM-Newton catalogue (Snowden et al. 2008). By fitting the contour lines of the X-ray image by ellipses, we confirm the X-ray distribution is well approximated by the elliptic distribution with a constant axis ratio and direction. We construct a simple model describing the axis ratio of the X-ray gas assuming the hydrostatic equilibrium embedded in the triaxial dark matter halo model proposed by Jing & Suto (2002) and the hydrostatic equilibrium. We find that the observed probability density function of the axis ratio is consistent with this model prediction.
The Spin Effect on Planetary Radial Velocimetry of Exoplanets
Hajime Kawahara
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/760/1/L13
Abstract: We consider the effect of planetary spin on the planetary radial velocity (PRV) in dayside spectra of exoplanets. To understand the spin effect qualitatively, we derive an analytic formula of the intensity-weighted radial velocity from planetary surface on the following assumptions: 1) constant and solid rotation without precession, 2) stable and uniform distribution of molecules/atoms, 3) emission models from dayside hemisphere, and 4) a circular orbit. On these assumptions, we find that the curve of the PRV is distorted by the planetary spin and this anomaly is characterized by spin radial velocity at equator and a projected angle on a celestial plane between the spin axis and the axis of orbital motion \lambda_p in a manner analogous to the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The latter can constrain the planetary obliquity. Creating mock PRV data with 3 km/s accuracy, we demonstrate how \lambda_p and the spin radial velocity at equator are estimated. We find that the stringent constraint of eccentricity is crucial to detect the spin effect. Though our formula is still qualitative, we conclude that the PRV in the dayside spectra will be a powerful means for constraining the planetary spin.
Global Mapping of Earth-like Exoplanets from Scattered Light Curves
Hajime Kawahara,Yuka Fujii
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/720/2/1333
Abstract: Scattered lights from terrestrial exoplanets provide valuable information about the planetary surface. Applying the surface reconstruction method proposed by Fujii et al. (2010) to both diurnal and annual variations of the scattered light, we develop a reconstruction method of land distribution with both longitudinal and latitudinal resolutions. We find that one can recover a global map of an idealized Earth-like planet on the following assumptions: 1) cloudless, 2) a face-on circular orbit, 3) known surface types and their reflectance spectra 4) no atmospheric absorption, 5) known rotation rate 6) static map, and 7) no moon. Using the dependence of light curves on the planetary obliquity, we also show that the obliquity can be measured by adopting the chi-square minimization or the extended information criterion. We demonstrate a feasibility of our methodology by applying it to a multi-band photometry of a cloudless model Earth with future space missions such as the occulting ozone observatory (O3). We conclude that future space missions can estimate both the surface distribution and the obliquity at least for cloudless Earth-like planets within 5 pc.
Mapping Clouds and Terrain of Earth-like Planets from Photometric Variability: Demonstration with Planets in Face-on Orbits
Hajime Kawahara,Yuka Fujii
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/739/2/L62
Abstract: We develop an inversion technique of annual scattered light curves to sketch a two-dimensional albedo map of exoplanets in face-on orbits. As a test-bed for future observations of extrasolar terrestrial planets, we apply this mapping technique to simulated light curves of a mock Earth-twin at a distance of 10 pc in a face-on circular orbit. A primary feature in recovered albedo maps traces the annual mean distribution of clouds. To extract information of other surface types, we attempt to reduce the cloud signal by taking difference of two bands. We find that the inversion of reflectivity difference between 0.8-0.9 and 0.4-0.5 micron bands roughly recover the continental distribution, except for high latitude regions persistently covered with clouds and snow. The inversion of the reflectivity difference across the red edge (0.8-0.9 and 0.6-0.7 micron) emphasizes the vegetation features near the equator. The planetary obliquity and equinox can be estimated simultaneously with the mapping under the presence of clouds. We conclude that the photometric variability of the scattered light will be a powerful means for exploring the habitat of a second Earth.
Mapping Earth Analogs from Photometric Variability: Spin-Orbit Tomography for Planets in Inclined Orbits
Yuka Fujii,Hajime Kawahara
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/755/2/101
Abstract: Aiming at obtaining detailed information of surface environment of Earth analogs, Kawahara & Fujii (2011) proposed an inversion technique of annual scattered light curves named the spin-orbit tomography (SOT), which enables one to sketch a two-dimensional albedo map from annual variation of the disk-integrated scattered light, and demonstrated the method with a planet in a face-on orbit. We extend it to be applicable to general geometric configurations, including low-obliquity planets like the Earth in inclined orbits. We simulate light curves of the Earth in an inclined orbit in three photometric bands (0.4-0.5um, 0.6-0.7um, and 0.8-0.9um) and show that the distribution of clouds, snow, and continents is retrieved with the aid of the SOT. We also demonstrate the SOT by applying it to an upright Earth, a tidally locked Earth, and Earth analogs with ancient continental configurations. The inversion is model independent in the sense that we do not assume specific albedo models when mapping the surface, and hence applicable in principle to any kind of inhomogeneity. This method can potentially serve as a unique tool to investigate the exohabitats/exoclimes of Earth analogs.
Characterizing Earth-like Planets Using a Combination of High-Dispersion Spectroscopy and High-Contrast Instruments: Doppler-shifted Water and Oxygen Lines
Hajime Kawahara,Teruyuki Hirano
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Future radial velocity, astrometric, and direct-imaging surveys will find nearby Earth-sized planets within the habitable zone in the near future. How can we search for water and oxygen in those nontransiting planets? We show that a combination of high-dispersion spectroscopic and coronagraphic techniques is a promising technique to detect molecular lines imprinted in the scattered light of Earth-like planets (ELPs). In this method, the planetary signals are spectroscopically separated from telluric absorption by using the Doppler shift. Assuming a long observing campaign (a 10-day exposure) using a high-dispersion spectrometer (R=50,000) with speckle suppression on a 30-m telescope, we simulate the spectra from ELPs around M dwarfs (whose stellar effective temperature is 2750-3750 K) at 5 pc. Performing a cross-correlation analysis with the spectral template of the molecular lines, we find that raw contrasts of $10^{-4}$ and $10^{-5}$ (using Y, J, and H bands) are required to detect water vapor at the 3 $\sigma$ and 16 $\sigma$ levels, respectively, for $T_\star$=3000 K. The raw contrast of $10^{-5}$ is required for a 6 $\sigma$ detection of the oxygen 1.27 $\mu$m band. We also examine possible systematics, incomplete speckle subtraction, and the correction for telluric lines. When those are not perfect, a telluric water signal appears in the cross-correlation function. However, we find the planetary signal is separated from that resulting from the velocity difference. We also find that the intrinsic water lines in the Phoenix spectra are too weak to affect the results for water detection. We conclude that a combination of high-dispersion spectroscopy and high-contrast instruments can be a powerful means to characterize ELPs in the extremely large telescope era.
Systematic X-ray Analysis of Radio Relic Clusters with SUZAKU
Hiroki Akamatsu,Hajime Kawahara
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/65.1.16
Abstract: We perform a systematic X-ray analysis of six giant radio relics in four clusters of galaxies using the Suzaku satellite. The sample includes CIZA 2242.8-5301, Zwcl 2341.1-0000, the South-East part of Abell 3667 and previously published results of the North-West part of Abell 3667 and Abell 3376. Especially we first observed the narrow (50 kpc) relic of CIZA 2242.8-5301 by Suzaku satellite, which enable us to reduce the projection effect. We report X-ray detections of shocks at the position of the relics in CIZA2242.8-5301 and Abell 3667 SE. At the position of the two relics in ZWCL2341.1-0000, we do not detect shocks. From the spectroscopic temperature profiles across the relic, we find that the temperature profiles exhibit significant jumps across the relics for CIZA 2242.8-5301, Abell 3376, Abell 3667NW, and Abell 3667SE. We estimated the Mach number from the X-ray temperature or pressure profile using the Rankine-Hugoniot jump condition and compared it with the Mach number derived from the radio spectral index. The resulting Mach numbers (M=1.5-3) are almost consistent with each other, while the Mach number of CIZA2242 derived from the X-ray data tends to be lower than that of the radio observation. These results indicate that the giant radio relics in merging clusters are related to the shock structure, as suggested by previous studies of individual clusters.
The persistent cosmic web and its filamentary structure II: Illustrations
Thierry Sousbie,Christophe Pichon,Hajime Kawahara
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18395.x
Abstract: The recently introduced discrete persistent structure extractor (DisPerSE, Soubie 2010, paper I) is implemented on realistic 3D cosmological simulations and observed redshift catalogues (SDSS); it is found that DisPerSE traces equally well the observed filaments, walls, and voids in both cases. In either setting, filaments are shown to connect onto halos, outskirt walls, which circumvent voids. Indeed this algorithm operates directly on the particles without assuming anything about the distribution, and yields a natural (topologically motivated) self-consistent criterion for selecting the significance level of the identified structures. It is shown that this extraction is possible even for very sparsely sampled point processes, as a function of the persistence ratio. Hence astrophysicists should be in a position to trace and measure precisely the filaments, walls and voids from such samples and assess the confidence of the post-processed sets as a function of this threshold, which can be expressed relative to the expected amplitude of shot noise. In a cosmic framework, this criterion is comparable to friend of friend for the identifications of peaks, while it also identifies the connected filaments and walls, and quantitatively recovers the full set of topological invariants (Betti numbers) {\sl directly from the particles} as a function of the persistence threshold. This criterion is found to be sufficient even if one particle out of two is noise, when the persistence ratio is set to 3-sigma or more. The algorithm is also implemented on the SDSS catalogue and used to locat interesting configurations of the filamentary structure. In this context we carried the identification of an ``optically faint'' cluster at the intersection of filaments through the recent observation of its X-ray counterpart by SUZAKU. The corresponding filament catalogue will be made available online.
Absolute Dimensions of a Flat Hierarchical Triple System KIC 6543674 from the Kepler Photometry
Kento Masuda,Sho Uehara,Hajime Kawahara
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/806/2/L37
Abstract: Many of the Kepler close binaries are suggested to constitute hierarchical triple systems through their eclipse timing variations (ETVs). Eclipses by the third body in those systems, if observed, provide precise constraints on its physical and orbital properties, which are otherwise difficult to obtain. In this Letter, we analyze such a "tertiary event" observed only once in the KIC 6543674 system. The system consists of a short-period ($2.4\,\mathrm{days}$) inner eclipsing binary and a third body on a wide ($1100\,\mathrm{days}$) and eccentric ($e\simeq0.6$) orbit. Analysis of three tertiary eclipses around a single inferior conjunction of the third body yields the mutual inclination between the inner and outer binary planes to be $3.3^\circ\pm0.6^\circ$, indicating an extremely flat geometry. Furthermore, combining the timings and shapes of the tertiary eclipses with the phase curve and ETVs of the inner binary, we determine the mass and radius ratios of all three bodies in the system using the Kepler photometry alone. With the primary mass and temperature from the Kepler Input Catalog, the absolute masses, radii, and effective temperatures of the three stars are obtained as follows: $M_\mathrm{A}=1.2\pm0.3\,M_\odot$, $R_\mathrm{A}=1.8\pm0.1\,R_\odot$, $M_\mathrm{B}=1.1_{-0.2}^{+0.3}\,M_\odot$, $R_\mathrm{B}=1.4\pm0.1\,R_\odot$, $M_\mathrm{C}=0.50_{-0.08}^{+0.07}\,M_\odot$, $R_\mathrm{C}=0.50\pm0.04\,R_\odot$, $T_\mathrm{A} \simeq T_\mathrm{B}\simeq 6100\,\mathrm{K}$, and $T_\mathrm{C}<5000\,\mathrm{K}$. Implication for the formation scenario of close binaries is briefly discussed.
SUZAKU Observation of a New Merging Group of Galaxies at a Filamentary Junction
Hajime Kawahara,Hiroshi Yoshitake,Takahiro Nishimichi,Thierry Sousbie
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/727/2/L38
Abstract: We report on a new merging group of galaxies, Suzaku J1552+2739 at z ~ 0.08 revealed by a SUZAKU observation. The group was found by observing a junction of galaxy filaments optically identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic data. Suzaku J1552+2739 exhibits an irregular morphology and presents several peaks in its X-ray image. A bright elliptical galaxy, observable in the central peak, allows the localization of the group at z = 0.083. We found a significant hot spot visible in the X-ray hardness map, close to the second peak. The spectroscopic temperature is T = 1.6+0.4-0.1 keV within R500 = 0.6 Mpc and T = 3 - 5 keV in the hot spot. We interpret those results as Suzaku J1552+2739 being located in the center of a major merging process. The observation of a galaxy group showing multiple X-ray peaks and a hot spot at the same time is rare and we believe in particular that the study of Suzaku J1552+2739 potentially presents a significant interest to better understand the dynamical and thermal evolution of the intragroup and intracluster medium, as well as its relation with surrounding environment.
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