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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 946 matches for " Hajime Iwasa "
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Limited Functional Health Literacy, Health Information Sources, and Health Behavior among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan
Yuko Yoshida,Hajime Iwasa,Shu Kumagai,Takao Suzuki,Hideyo Yoshida
ISRN Geriatrics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/952908
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to explore how health information sources vary by functional health literacy levels and the relationship between health literacy and health behaviors among the old-old, community-dwelling adults. A cross-sectional study was used. The sample included 620 participants from a rural community in northern Japan. We used structured questionnaires to gather demographic information and assess health-related behaviors, information sources utilized, and functional health literacy. Functional health literacy scores were categorized into three groups, namely, low, middle, and high literacy. Individuals with limited health literacy were more likely to drink less alcohol, were less physically active, had less dietary variety, and had a low rate of medical check-ups. They were also less likely to use printed media, organization or medical procedure, electronic media, and accessed fewer health-related information sources. This study highlights the necessity of information tools that facilitate better access to information among older adults with limited health literacy. 1. Introduction Limited health literacy is a barrier to adequate health care. Health literacy is defined as “the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions” [1]. People with limited health literacy typically have a poor understanding of their medical condition and medical prescriptions, as well as poorer disease management, making it difficult for them to make good decisions regarding various aspects of their health [2]. Limited health literacy among older adults is a major concern because it has implications for their overall health. Previous research has shown a limited health literacy rate of around 24% [3–5] among community-dwelling older adults. Therefore, in the interests of community service, it is important to consider ways of providing health information to older adults who have limited health literacy. Previous studies have shown that limited health literacy is independently associated with a poorer health status, inclusive of physical and mental health [4], as well as mortality [6–9]. Older adults with limited health literacy have a poor understanding of health-related information [10] and tend to have limited access to health care services [3, 11]. Thus, health care access may act as a mediator between limited health literacy and poor health status among older adults. Furthermore, varying health literacy levels may contribute to disparities
Ifugao males, learning and teaching for the improvement of maternal and child health status in the Philippines: an evaluation of a program
Noriko Kadomoto, Hajime Iwasa, Miyako Takahashi, Marcelyn M Dulnuan, Ichiro Kai
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-280
Abstract: A male community representative who received a lecture from the health office staff was assigned to teach a group of community males [Group 1, N = 140] in 5 sessions, using educational materials. 10 male volunteers from Group 1 then taught a different group of males [Group 2, N = 105] in their own barangays (villages). To evaluate its effectiveness, a self-administered questionnaire survey pertaining knowledge, attitude and practice regarding MCH was conducted at three different time points: before the session (Time 1, T1), after the session (Time 2, T2), and 3 months following the session (Time 3, T3). A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to test for changes over time and its interaction effect between specific socio-demographic variables.In Group 1, there was a significant positive increase in knowledge score over time at T1-T2 and T1-T3 (p < 0.001). For attitude, the score increased only at T1-T2 (p = 0.027). The effectiveness in knowledge and attitude did not vary by socio-demographic characteristics. As for practice, majority of the participants reported that they had talked about MCH topics in their community and assisted a pregnant woman in some ways. A comparison between Group 1 and Group 2 revealed that Group 2 had similar effectiveness as Group 1 in knowledge improvement immediately after the session (p < 0.001), but no such improvement in the attitude score.Although the change in attitude needs further assessment, this strategy of continuous learning and teaching of MCH topics within community males is shown to improve knowledge and has a potential to uplift the MCH status, including the reduction of maternal deaths, in Alfonso Lista, Ifugao, Philippines.Improvement of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) is a global agenda in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims for a 75 per cent reduction of maternal deaths between 1990 and 2015. However, progress in reducing Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR, deaths per 100,00
Characterization of the Temperature Conditions of Inside Narrow Rocky Outcrops that Serve as a Habitat for Semi-Fossorial Mammals  [PDF]
Masahiro A. Iwasa, Mayuh Tabata
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2016.64030
Abstract:
We characterized the temperature conditions inside narrow rocky outcrops that served as habitats for semi-fossorial small mammals in a mountainous locality on the Japanese Islands. Usually, it is considered that the narrow rocky outcrops have poorer resources than the soil ground of forest floors, which have rich vegetation and nutrition. On the basis of this tendency, it is considered that ecologically dominant species occupy the rich soil habitats and subordinate species are chased away to the narrow rocky outcrops by ecological species competitions, resulting in habitat segregation. However, the present temperature data revealed that the temperatures inside rocky terrains were more stable than the shaded ambient temperatures in the forest. The rocky habitats were apparently colder in summer and warmer in winter, in both daily maximum and minimum temperatures, than the ambient temperatures in the forest during the research period. In addition, the daily difference between maximum and minimum temperatures in the rocky habitats was apparently smaller than that of the ambient ones. These temperature conditions in the narrow rocky outcrops are advantageous to the small mammalian metabolic system. Namely, we estimate that the semi-fossorial small mammals are not chased out by the dominant species through ecological competitions and that the semi-fossorial small mammals may occupy the narrow rocky outcrops as a more advantageous habitat than the forest floor.
Two cases of juvenile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting with marked bi-atrial enlargement on standard 12-lead electrocardiogram  [PDF]
Hajime Kataoka
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.21007
Abstract: This report describes two cases of juvenile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in which prominent bi-atrial enlargement was observed on standard 12-lead electrocardiogram, suggesting inherent predis-position to extreme enlargement and/or hypertrophy may exist in atrial myocardium in juvenile HCM. Comparative study between juvenile and adult HCM patients using a large sample size is required to confirm this hypothesis.
Protective Effect of Ethanolamine on Hepatic Preneoplastic Alterations Induced by the Administration of N-Nitrosodiethylamine in Rats  [PDF]
Hajime Sasaki
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.810067
Abstract:
The effects of exogenously administered ethanolamine (Etn) on the N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDA)-induced formation of hepatic lesions in rats were investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally administered NDA (100 mg/kg body weight) at 7-day intervals, and the animals were allowed free access to water containing Etn (15 or 50 mg/L) for 35 days. NDA-induced hepatic lesions were assessed according to the number of nodules detectable on the liver surface, areas of clear cell foci observed on histopathological thin sections, hydroxyproline levels in liver homogenates, and blood biochemical marker levels. Compared with those from control rats that were not administered Etn, livers from Etn-exposed rats had significantly fewer surface nodules and smaller areas of clear cell foci, indicating that Etn prevented or delayed the formation of preneoplastic cell alterations. Hydroxyproline levels in livers were significantly lower in Etn-treated rats, indicating that the chemical prevented the formation of fibrotic alterations. The protective effects of Etn on NDA-induced hepatic lesions were demonstrated by changes in blood biochemical marker levels. These results suggest that Etn can protect against cellular alterations induced by a carcinogenic chemical, possibly by enhancing hepatic phospholipid synthesis.
Reduction of Dynamics with Lie Group Analysis
M. Iwasa
Advances in Mathematical Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/505281
Abstract: This paper is mainly a review concerning singular perturbation methods by means of Lie group analysis which has been presented by the author. We make use of a particular type of approximate Lie symmetries in those methods in order to construct reduced systems which describe the long-time behavior of the original dynamical system. Those methods can be used in analyzing not only ordinary differential equations but also difference equations. Although this method has been mainly used in order to derive asymptotic behavior, when we can find exact Lie symmetries, we succeed in construction of exact solutions. 1. Introduction While the Lie group analysis has played an important role in construction of particular solutions of differential equations in terms of their symmetries [1, 2], it has been shown that the Lie group analysis is also an effective approach for obtaining the asymptotic behavior of systems. About a few decades ago, a method which provides asymptotic behavior of solutions of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations in terms of the self-similarity of the system was presented [3]. The method was generalized in terms of the Lie symmetry group, which is referred to as the renormalization group symmetry; and a systematic manner was constructed for finding asymptotic solutions [4]. On the other hand, a practical method which introduced an idea of asymptotic Lie symmetry was presented and has succeeded in deriving asymptotic behavior of reaction diffusion equations and some other nonlinear differential equations [5, 6]. It has been shown that the Lie group analysis can also be applied in order to obtain asymptotic behavior in perturbation problems [7–9]. In this paper, we summarize and review the systematic procedure to derive an asymptotic behavior of perturbed dynamical systems by means of the Lie group analysis. This method is especially useful to a particular type of singular perturbation problems in which the naive expansion with respect to the perturbation parameter includes diverging terms, conventionally called secular terms, which give rise to inconsistency with long-time behavior of the solution. One of the differences of the method from the ordinary Lie group analysis is the point that we consider Lie groups which act not only on the variables but also on the parameters which are constants in terms of dynamics. Because we know solutions of the unperturbed system in perturbation problems in general, if we can find such a Lie symmetry group admitted by a perturbed system that acts also on the perturbation parameter, we succeed in
Solution of reduced equations derived with singular perturbation methods
Masatomo Iwasa
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.066213
Abstract: For singular perturbation problems in dynamical systems, various appropriate singular perturbation methods have been proposed to eliminate secular terms appearing in the naive expansion. For example, the method of multiple time scales, the normal form method, center manifold theory, the renormalization group method are well known. In this paper, it is shown that all of the solutions of the reduced equations constructed with those methods are exactly equal to sum of the most divergent secular terms appearing in the naive expansion. For the proof, a method to construct a perturbation solution which differs from the conventional one is presented, where we make use of the theory of Lie symmetry group.
Tyrosinase (Tyr) Gene Mutation in Albino Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)  [PDF]
Takao Ukaji, Masahiro A. Iwasa, Osamu Kai
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2016.64031
Abstract:
Tyrosinase is encoded by the Tyr (c or albino) locus and is the key enzyme in pigment biosynthesis. Loss of function of this enzyme caused by gene mutation results in albinism. Most cases of albinism are caused by missense mutations of tyrosinase. Albino mutations in Tyr have been identified in various animals, including human, mouse, rat, rabbit, cattle, cat, and ferret, but not in gerbil. We created two new gerbil strains: MON/Num/a (inbred agouti phenotype) and MON/Num/c (albino phenotype). Here, we report that four nucleotide substitutions in the Tyr gene caused two missense mutations in amino acids in the albino gerbil: a G-to-A mutation at position 204 in exon 1 caused R77H, and A-to-G at position 1392 and G-to-T at position 1393 in exon 5 caused Q473R. The substitution at position 1408 in exon 5 was silent. These missense mutations are conserved in all albino phenotypes we tested. Therefore, we suggest that these mutations are responsible for albinism in gerbil.
Effect of Silver-Loaded Zeolite on the Susceptibility of Escherichia Coli Against Antibiotics  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Inoue, Hajime Hamashima
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.31015
Abstract: We investigated the effect of silver-loaded zeolite (Ag-Z) on antibacterial activity of some antibiotics against Es-cherichia coli against antibiotics. We treated the bacterial suspension of E. coli by Ag-Z to be the level which the decrease of viable cell count was not observed. Susceptibility test of E. coli treated with Ag-Z was carried out against four antibiotics with different mode of action. Apparent increase in susceptibility was found in the case of rifampicin, not in others. The result suggests that application of Ag-Z to ward environment might give a good outcome at the treatment with rifampicin and at the treatment for pathogenic microbe spread through the air, such as tubercle bacilli.
Electrochemical Analysis of the Redox State of Silver Contained in Antibacterial Material  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Inoue, Hajime Hamashima
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.32019
Abstract: Introduction of silver into some inorganic material causes the resulting mixture to have antibacterial activity. Here, we investigated the role of silver in the bactericidal activity of silver-loaded zeolite, by measuring the effects of silver-loaded zeolite on Escherichia coli cell viability under conditions in which the oxidation state of the silver was controlled electrochemically. Bactericidal activity was observed when the sweeping voltage between 0 and 0.7 V was applied to the silver electrode. When nitrogen gas bubbling or reactive oxygen scavengers were added to the experimental system, bactericidal activity decreased. These results indicated that the redox cycle, Ag0 <—> Ag+, caused the dissolved oxygen to form reactive oxygen species.
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