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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 69 matches for " Hailemariam Berhe "
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Knowledge about Obstetric Danger Signs and Associated Factors among Mothers in Tsegedie District, Tigray Region, Ethiopia 2013: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study
Desta Hailu, Hailemariam Berhe
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083459
Abstract: Background In many developing countries including Ethiopia, maternal morbidity and mortality still pose a substantial burden and thus progress towards the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) remains slow. Raising awareness of women about the danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth is the first essential step in accepting appropriate and timely referral to obstetric care. However, in Ethiopia little is known about the knowledge level of mothers about obstetric danger signs. The objective of this study was to assess the status of knowledge of danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth among mothers who gave birth in the past two years prior to the survey in Tsegedie district, Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. Methods A Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 20, 2012 to June 30, 2013 on a randomly selected sample of 485 women who had at least one delivery in the past two years. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select the study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. Focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were utilized to supplement the Quantitative data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software. Result Four hundred eighty five mothers participated in the study making a response rate of 100%. Vaginal bleeding was the most commonly mentioned danger signs of pregnancy (49.1%) and childbirth (52.8%). Two hundred eighty five (58.8%) and 299 (61.6%) of respondents mentioned at least two danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth respectively. One hundred seventy (35.1%) and 154 (31.8%) of respondents didn't know any danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth respectively. Educational status of the mother, place of delivery and having functional radio were found to be independent predictors of knowledge of women about the danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth. Conclusion Educational status of the mother, place of delivery and having functional radio were independently associated with knowledge of women about obstetric danger signs. Thus, provision of information, education and communication targeting women, family and the general community on danger signs of pregnancy and childbirth and associated factors was recommended.
DETERMINANTS OF BREAST FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING PUBLIC HEALTH FACILITIES, MEKELLE, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA; A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Hailemariam Berhe*, Bazie Mekonnen , Alemayehu Bayray and Haftu Berhe
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2013,
Abstract: Background- Breastfeeding and good nutrition for children are essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, particularly the goals relating to child survival. Even though, most mothers in Ethiopia breastfeed their babies, they do not always follow the recommendations of the "National Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding". Objective- The aim of this study was to assess determinants of breastfeeding practices among mothers’ of children aged less than 24 months attending governmental maternal and child health clinics in Mekelle town.Methods- Institution based cross sectional study was carried out among five health facilities selected using simple random sampling technique. Data was collected by interviewer administered structured questionnaire and it was entered, cleaned and analyzed by using SPSS for windows version 16.0. The proportion was used to describe the results and it was presented in the form of figures, tables and texts. The binary logistic regression model was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Result- A total of 361 mothers with their index child were interviewed. The ever breastfeeding rate in this study was 98.9%. The timely initiation rate of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were 77.9% and 60.8%, respectively. Conclusion and recommendation-: A range of characteristics affects the practice of timely initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Coordination, strengthening, sustaining of the existing strategies and approaches for further improvement of optimal breastfeeding practice is recommended.
Utilization of Modern Contraceptives among HIV Positive Reproductive Age Women in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study
Yemane Berhane,Haftu Berhe,Gerezgiher Buruh Abera,Hailemariam Berhe
ISRN AIDS , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/319724
Abstract: Background. HIV infected women in sub-Saharan Africa are at substantial risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. In developing countries including Ethiopia counseling and provision of modern contraceptives of choice to HIV infected women including those on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important strategy to prevent unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Little is known about the existing practices and utilization of modern contraceptives among HIV positive reproductive age women attending ART units. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess utilization of modern contraceptives and associated factors among HIV positive reproductive age women attending ART units in zonal hospitals of Tigray region, North Ethiopia. Method. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 364 HIV positive reproductive age women in all zonal hospitals of Tigray region using systematic sampling technique. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods were used to analyze utilization of modern contraceptives and the factors associated with it. Result. Three hundred sixty-four subjects participated with a response rate of 99.2%. The mean age of the respondents was (SD) years. About 46% of participants utilized modern contraceptives, 59.9% out of them used dual method. However, a significant proportion of the respondents (46%) reported that they wished to have a desire for children. Being secondary education and higher (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.17–6.95) and currently on HAART (AOR: 3.23; 95% CI: 1.49–7.01) they were more likely to utilize modern contraceptive. But those women who were ≥25 years old, house wives, single, divorced, or widowed were less likely to utilize modern contraceptive. Conclusion. Results of this study revealed that the number of respondents who were ever heard of modern contraceptives was high. However, modern contraceptive utilization was still low. Additional efforts are needed to promote modern contraceptive utilization in general and dual method use in particular among HIV positive reproductive age women. 1. Introduction At the Alma-Ata conference (1978), Family Planning services were highlighted as one of the basic and important strategies for reducing high risk pregnancies that often occurred too early, too late, and too frequent and also as a way to improve child heath. Family planning programs have helped women worldwide to avoid millions of unintended pregnancies often associated
Semi-Analytical Approach for Stiffness Estimation of 3-DOF PKM  [PDF]
Hailemariam Nigus
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2014.42010
Abstract:

Due to their advantageous of high stiffness, high speed, large load carrying capacity and complicated surface processing ability, PKMs (Parallel Kinematic Manipulators) have been applied to machine tools. This paper mainly addresses the issue of stiffness formulation of a three-prismatic- revolute-spherical PKM (3-PRS PKM). The manipulators consist of three kinematic limbs of identical topology structure, and each limb is composed of an actuated prismatic-revolute-spherical. In order to build up the stiffness model, kinematics, Jacobian and finite element analysis are also performed as the basis. Main works in this paper can be outlined as follows. By use of approaches of vector, inverse position analysis of 3-PRS PKM is conducted. When the independent position and orientation parameters of the end-effectors are provided, the translational distances of active prismatic joints can be determined. Then with the aid of the wrench and reciprocal screw theory, the overall Jacobian of this manipulator is formulated quickly, and which is a six by six dimensional matrix and can reflect all information about actuation and constraint singularity. After for- mulating the position analysis and Jacobian matrix, the next step is stiffness analysis. Analytical stiffness model, a function of Jacobian matrix and components stiffness matrix, is obtained first using the principle of virtual work. Stiffness model is also a six by six dimensional matrix and can provide the information of actuation and constraint stiffness simultaneously. For the complex geometry shape of some components, it is impossible to know their stiffness distributions with the varying configuration. Therefore, ANSYS technology has to be applied to compute the stiffness coefficients of these components at different configurations. Then, the computed data are used to obtain the stiffness distribution by use of the numerical fitting method. Up to now, the semi-ana- lytical stiffness model of the manipulator is completely formulated and can be applied to estimate the system stiffness of 3-PRS PKM. The model enables the stiffness of a 3-PRS PKM to be quickly estimated. Provided with the geometry parameters and load situation on tool tip, the stiffness of 3-PRS PKM system is estimated based on the stiffness matrix about tool tip which is obtained by transforming the point from the center of circle composed

Generating Tree-Lists by Fusing Individual Tree Detection and Nearest Neighbor Imputation Using Airborne LiDAR Data  [PDF]
Joonghoon Shin, Hailemariam Temesgen
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84032
Abstract: Individual tree detection (ITD) and the area-based approach (ABA) are combined to generate tree-lists using airborne LiDAR data. ITD based on the Canopy Height Model (CHM) was applied for overstory trees, while ABA based on nearest neighbor (NN) imputation was applied for understory trees. Our approach is intended to compensate for the weakness of LiDAR data and ITD in estimating understory trees, keeping the strength of ITD in estimating overstory trees in tree-level. We investigated the effects of three parameters on the performance of our proposed approach: smoothing of CHM, resolution of CHM, and height cutoff (a specific height that classifies trees into overstory and understory). There was no single combination of those parameters that produced the best performance for estimating stems per ha, mean tree height, basal area, diameter distribution and height distribution. The trees in the lowest LiDAR height class yielded the largest relative bias and relative root mean squared error. Although ITD and ABA showed limited explanatory powers to estimate stems per hectare and basal area, there could be improvements from methods such as using LiDAR data with higher density, applying better algorithms for ITD and decreasing distortion of the structure of LiDAR data. Automating the procedure of finding optimal combinations of those parameters is essential to expedite forest management decisions across forest landscapes using remote sensing data.
Determinates of Childhood Pneumonia and Diarrhea with Special Emphasis to Exclusive Breastfeeding in North Achefer District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Case Control Study  [PDF]
Molla Gedefaw, Resom Berhe
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.52014
Abstract: Studies showed that exclusive breast feeding reduced infant morbidity and mortality. In low income countries such as Ethiopia where under-five mortality is very high, the role of exclusively breastfeeding could be even more critical. However, studies assessing the place of exclusive breast freeing in the prevention of childhood illnesses in our area are scarce. The aim of the study was to identify determinant factors of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea. An institution based case control study was conducted in Achefer District in July, 2012. The cases were 122 children of 7 - 24 months old who had repeated attack of diarrhoea or pneumonia over three months prior to the survey while controls were 122 children who visited well baby clinic for vaccination. Data were collected by using pre-tested and structured questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS version 16 for windows. Logistic regression was performed, and strength of associations was estimated using odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. About 83% of the controls and only 12.3% of the cases were exclusively breast fed. Children who were exclusively breast fed were 83 times less likely to develop pneumonia or diarrhea than those who were not exclusively fed. Marital status, monthly income, prelacteal feeding, and late initiation of breast feeding were found to have statistically significant association with childhood diarrhea and pneumonia. This study brought local evidence that exclusive breast feeding had a protective effect against common childhood infectious diseases—pneumonia and diarrhoea—in the study area. Therefore, culture sensitive and plausible health education is recommended to strengthen exclusive breast feeding practices in order to decrease mortality and morbidity of infants and children from pneumonia and diarrhoea.
Volume and Implicit Taper Functions For Cupressus Lusitanica and Pinus Patula Tree Plantations in Ethiopia
L Berhe
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2009,
Abstract: Data from Cupressus lusitanica and Pinus patula were used to develop total and exponential form merchantable volume models, and implicit taper functions. The exponential form merchantable volume model to a specified top diameter limit showed marked improvement compared with the unbounded non exponential form merchantable volume model of Burkhart (1977). Implicit taper functions derived from the exponential form merchantable volume models were found superior to taper functions obtained from the non exponential merchantable volume models. In general, these models are essential management tools for the plantation of the species and in particular provide stock volume estimates by end use type.
A Comparison of Selected Parametric and Non-Parametric Imputation Methods for Estimating Forest Biomass and Basal Area  [PDF]
Donald Gagliasso, Susan Hummel, Hailemariam Temesgen
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.41008
Abstract:

Various methods have been used to estimate the amount of above ground forest biomass across landscapes and to create biomass maps for specific stands or pixels across ownership or project areas. Without an accurate estimation method, land managers might end up with incorrect biomass estimate maps, which could lead them to make poorer decisions in their future management plans. The goal of this study was to compare various imputation methods to predict forest biomass and basal area, at a project planning scale (<20,000 acres) on the Malheur National Forest, located in eastern Oregon, USA. We examined the predictive performance of linear regression, geographic weighted regression (GWR), gradient nearest neighbor (GNN), most similar neighbor (MSN), random forest imputation, and k-nearest neighbor (k-nn) to estimate biomass (tons/acre) and basal area (sq. feet per acre) across 19,000 acres on the Malheur National Forest. To test the different methods, a combination of ground inventory plots, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, satellite imagery, and climate data was analyzed, and their root mean square error (RMSE) and bias were calculated. Results indicate that for biomass prediction, the k-nn (k = 5) had the lowest RMSE and least amount of bias. The second most accurate method consisted of the k-nn (k = 3), followed by the GWR model, and the random forest imputation. For basal area prediction, the GWR model had the lowest RMSE and least amount of bias. The second most accurate method was k-nn (k = 5), followed by k-nn (k = 3), and the random forest method. For both metrics, the GNN method was the least accurate based on the ranking of RMSE and bias.

Efficiency of the health extension programme in Tigray, Ethiopia: a data envelopment analysis
Miguel Sebastian, Hailemariam Lemma
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-10-16
Abstract: Efficiency was measured using a data envelopment analysis model. A Tobit model was performed to identify factors associated with efficiency. Seven rural districts (out of 35) were purposely chosen. Input/output information was collected from the database of the Tigray Health Bureau during July 2007-June 2008. Information was also collected on environmental factors that might influence the efficiency outcomes through a structured questionnaire from the correspondent district health officers.Analysis was based on data from 60 health posts. The mean scores for technical and scale efficiency were 0.57 (SD = 0.32) and 0.95 (SD = 0.11) respectively. Out of the 60 health posts, 15 (25.0%) were found to be technically efficient constituting the best practice frontier. Thirty eight (63.3%) were operating at their most productive scale size. In the regression analysis, none of the variables was significantly associated with the efficiency outcome.There is a need to review the management of the health information system in the region. The findings have also revealed that only a quarter of the health posts are working efficiently and pointed the need for improvement. A closer monitoring of the health extension programme is required in order to achieve the best possible performance.The last World Health Report (2008) has made a strong call to all the countries to direct their health systems towards the values of primary health care reflected in the Alma Ata declaration 30 years ago: social justice and the right to better health for all, participation and solidarity. Primary health care is considered to offer a comprehensive framework about how health systems can become more equitable, inclusive and fair [1]. To achieve these goals, good performing health systems regarding quality, access and efficiency are required.Being the principal objective of a health system to improve people's health, one of the chief functions the system needs to perform is to deliver health services. It
Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia
Menur Akmel, Hailemariam Segni
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Pelvic organ prolapse is the down ward descent of female organs including the bladder, small and large bowel resulting in protrusion of the vagina, uterus or both. It is a disorder exclusive to women and one of the most common indications for gynecologic surgery. Methods: This hospital based retrospective descriptive study was conducted to assess the magnitude of pelvic organ prolapse and risk factors for it. All cases of pelvic organ prolapse admitted and treated in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011 were included. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS computer software version 16.0. Chi-square test was used and was considered to be significant when p<0.05. Results: Pelvic organ prolapse accounted for 40.7% of major gynecologic operations. Mean age of patients was 42.43 ± 10.4 years and there was a significant association between prolapse and age of patients (p <0.05). Mean parity of patients was 6.5± 2.64 with a significant association between prolapse and parity (p < 0.05). Majority of them (80.6%) lived in rural area and there was a significant association between prolapse and residence area. Farmers accounted for 68.2% of the patients and there was a significant association between prolapse and occupation (p < 0.05). Risk factors identified were chronic cough (20.9%), constipation (30.2%) with some having more than one risk factor while none was identified in 59.7%. Conclusion: Prolapse is common among rural, farmer, parous and older women where most of them delivered at home with prolonged labor. Age, parity and occupation were associated with the stage of prolapse. Awareness creation on risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse and use of contraception to reduce parity is recommended. Health institution delivery should be advocated to minimize the rate of home deliveries and hence of prolonged labor.
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