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Testing for Price Co-Integration between Producers and Retailers: Evidence from Ethiopian Milk Market  [PDF]
Habtamu Regassa Lemma, Rajwinder Singh
iBusiness (IB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2015.71001
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to test how producers’ and retailers’ prices are horizontally integrated, and to show the direction of causality that exists between producers’ price and retails’ price in Ethiopian milk market. The study was conducted making use of secondary data extracted from Ethiopian central statistics agency. The data was time series having 120 observations of monthly recorded price series of producers and retailers, for the period from January, 2004 to December 2013. For this purpose, descriptive statistics and time series econometrics approach (Johansen’s test for co-integration and Vector Error Correction Model) were employed. The study shows that there is strong long run co-integration between producers’ price and retailers’ price. The policy implication is that the markets are co-integrated in terms of price transmission. However, the causality test shows that retailers are dominant over price determination. In other words, producer’s price is caused by retailers’ price; but producers’ price doesn’t cause retailers’ price. This shows that the market structure is in favor of retailers/traders, which can adversely affect the welfare of producers and consumers.
Soil Organic Carbon Storage, N Stock and Base Cations of Shade Coffee, Khat and Sugarcane for Andisols in South Ethiopia  [PDF]
Bekele Lemma
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2018.81004
Abstract: In the Wondo Genet, Ethiopia, the common agricultural land uses include maize, shade coffee, khat and sugarcane. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of perennial land uses on soil organic carbon (SOC), soil N and base cations. Four sites having maize and one or two of perennial land uses and with similar site characteristics were identified for this study. Soils (0 - 30 cm) were sampled at corners of a plot (20 × 20 m2) placed in each land use at each site. Results indicated that the SOC storage of the shade coffee plantations were 86% and 125% higher compared with adjacent maize land uses with the absolute differences being 50.7 and 54.4 Mg·ha-1, respectively. The soil N stock was 109% and 126% higher for the shade coffee than the maize land use while the absolute differences were 5.7 and 4.7 Mg·ha-1 for the same sites. Among perennials, the higher SOC storage in the shade coffee is attributable to the increased litter input and reduced soil disturbance in the system. While the higher soil N in the shade coffee was attributed to reduction of leaching, N uplift, and the increased litter quality and input. The high relative increase in shade coffee in SOC and soil N at Finance site was ascribed to the finer soil texture and low SOC and soil N at the compared adjacent maize farm. Although not significant, the relative increase in SOC (34%) and soil N (43%) in the sugarcane at the Finance as well as the relative increase in SOC (7%) and soil N (9%) in khat at Gotu as compared to Chaffee site was attributed to mainly the management differences. The shade coffee has the greatest potential for SOC storage and for increasing N stock, while khat and sugarcane have the least potential.
Double Multiple Streamtube Model and Numerical Analysis of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine  [PDF]
Habtamu Beri, Yingxue Yao
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.33033
Abstract: The present paper contributes to the modeling of unsteady flow analysis of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). Double multiple streamtube (DSMT) model was applied for the performance prediction of straight bladed fixed pitch VAWT using NACA0018 airfoil at low wind speed. A moving mesh technique was used to investigate two-dimensional unsteady flow around the same VAWT model with NACA0018 airfoil modified to be flexible at 150 from the main blade axis of the turbine at the trailing edge located about 70 % of the blade chord length using fluent solving Reynolds average Navier-strokes equation. The results obtained from DMST model and the simulation results were then compared. The result shows that the CFD simulation with airfoil modified has shown better performance at low tip speed ratios for the modeled turbine.
Intimate partners’ violence in Southern Ethiopia: Examining the prevalence and risk factors in the Sidama Zone
N Regassa
Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The high level of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in many population groups in Ethiopia and the risk factors associated with the practice is not well understood among scholars and decision makers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with intimate partner violence in Sidama, a populous zone in Southern Ethiopia. A combination of simple random and multistage sampling techniques were used to select 1094 households, comprising women and men participants, for the field study. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained using structured questionnaire and focus group discussions. Household, women and husband characteristics were used as explanatory variables while intimate partner violence served as the dependent variable. The study revealed that the prevalence of intimate partners’ violence is high in the study population (ranging from 14.7 to 61.2%) with physical violence (beating, causing physical damage and slapping) accounting for the largest share of the overall abusive acts. The predicted probability, using logistic regression, shows that literate women living with alcoholic husbands, women engaged in gainful income generating activities and women living in food insecure households were more susceptible to intimate partner violence. The study concluded that while the main determinants are generally embedded in the socio-cultural practices and attitudes of the community, there are certain individual and household level variables which significantly affect its likely occurrence.
Small holder farmers coping strategies to household food insecurity and hunger in Southern Ethiopia
N Regassa
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2011,
Abstract: This study has aimed at examining the small holder farmers’ coping strategies to sustained household food insecurity and hunger in Southern Ethiopia (Sidama Zone). In order to collect the required input data, a comprehensive interview schedule was developed. The data were collected from 614 households who were selected through two-stage probability sampling technique. The association of each predicting variable and the dependent variable (coping strategies), controlling for all confounding factors, was examined using the multivariate analysis. The result revealed that about 54% of the households were facing mild to severe food insecurity, and of which, about 19% fall in household hunger category (as measured by Household Hunger Scale) for more than six months of the year. The study further showed that households in the study area employ a range of coping strategies to respond to the high and sustained food insecurity and hunger, ranging from minimizing the number of meals and amount of food consumption to out-migration of household members during chronic food shortage. The findings of the multivariate analysis using multiple regression technique documented that some demographic and socio-economic variable (such as age of the household head, educational status, access to main social service and others) have associations with the number of coping strategies practiced by the households. Finally, few recommendations were given based on the key findings of the study, which includes promoting income-generating activities, enhancing the micro-financing efficiency, creating employment opportunities at local areas to deter unskilled labor migration, on farm diversification and the like.
Antenatal and postnatal care service utilization in southern Ethiopia: a population-based study
N Regassa
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Access to antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) services has a great deal of impacts on major causes of infant death and significantly affects trends of mortality in a population. Antenatal care may play an indirect role in reducing maternal mortality by encouraging women to deliver with assistance of a skilled birth attendant or in a health facility. In most rural settings of Ethiopia, there are challenges in increasing such health care service utilization mainly due to the fact that the decisions that lead women to use the services seem to occur within the context of their marriage , household and family setting. Objective: Examining the prevalence and factors associated with antenatal Care (ANC) and Postnatal Care (PNC) service utilizations. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population based study undertaken in 10 rural villages of the Sidama zone, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected from a representative sample of 1,094 households drawn from the study population using a combination of simple random and multistage sampling techniques. Two dependent variables were used in the analysis: The ANC, measured by whether a woman got the service (at least once) from a health professional or not during her last pregnancy and PNC which was approximated by whether the last born child completed the required immunization or not. Household and women’s characteristics were used as explanatory variables for both dependent variables. Results: The study revealed that the level of ANC and PNC service utilizations is 77.4 % and 37.2% respectively. The predicted probabilities, using logistic regression, showed that women who are literate, have exposure to media, and women with low parity are more likely to use both ANC and PNC services. Conclusion: Antenatal care service utilization was generally good while the postnatal care given to new born children was very low compared to other population groups in the region. Promoting women’s education and behavioral change communication at grass root level, provision of the services at both home and health facilities, and improving the quality and capacity of the health providers are some of the recommendations forwarded.
Making Legal Sense of Human Rights: The Judicial Role in Protecting Human Rights in Ethiopia
T Regassa
Mizan Law Review , 2009,
Abstract: No
Learning to Live with Conflicts: Federalism as a Tool of Conflict Management in Ethiopia -- An Overview
T Regassa
Mizan Law Review , 2010,
Abstract: This article explores the relationship between federalism and conflict in the light of the experience of the federal experiment in contemporary Ethiopia. By reinforcing the truism in federal studies that federalism is not a panacea to the ailments of divided societies that are prone to conflict, it seeks to point out that while federalism, as a reaction to some long-standing historic problems, helps us deal with some conflicts, it also has the potential to generate some other (new) ones. By assuming that conflict is primarily a relation of divergence of interests among parties with diverging strategies and methods, the article describes federalism in general and the federal experiment in Ethiopia and its persistent attempts to deal with the old and new conflicts that emerged in/from the past and are emerging day by day. Throughout, it is argued that we need to understand federalism as a tool of governance that both solves and generates different kinds of conflicts, and that we need to lessen our expectations of the federal experiment (by remembering that it does not establish the ‘peaceable kingdom’ that idealist philosophers long hoped for), and take the modest road of learning to live with the conflicts. Key Words: Conflict, constitution, ethnic diversity, Ethiopia, federalism, states.
Sub-National Constitutions in Ethiopia: Towards Entrenching Constitutionalism at State Level
T Regassa
Mizan Law Review , 2009,
Abstract: Ethiopia’s federalism is often studied from the perspective of the “centre”.1 The result of this focus on the centre to start off our inquiries has rendered the state constitutions 2 invisible both in academic and non-academic circles.3 This article offers a fresh look at the Ethiopian federal experiment from the perspective of the states. In a sense, therefore, this study is an attempt at studying federalism “from below”.4 Thus this paper offers an overview of state constitutions in Ethiopia with a view to highlighting their significance in the public life of Ethiopians. It also provides an analysis of how we can deepen and entrench constitutionalism in the states of Ethiopia through the instrumentality of state constitutions.
The making and legitimacy of the Ethiopian constitution: towards bridging the gap between constitutional design and constitutional practice
Regassa, Tsegaye
Afrika Focus , 2010,
Abstract: This article describes the making of the 1995 constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) and analyzes its implications for legitimacy. It contends that legitimacy of the constitution, which fosters fidelity to it, can –as one among other factors– help bridge the gapbetween constitutional design and constitutional practice. By making a process-content-context analysis of the constitution, it argues that the Ethiopian constitution which had a weak original legitimacy, can earn a derivative legitimacy through aggressive implementation. Aggressive implementation, it is maintained, demands fidelity to the constitution. Fidelity and other components of a redemptive constitutional practice (such as creative constitutional interpretation, constitutionally informed legislation, positive constitutional amendment, and constitutionally responsible voting) help deal with the perennial question of how to bridge the gap between constitutional design and constitutional practice in Ethiopia and beyond.
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