Abstract:
By using quantum method and decorrelation approximation, the twophoton bistability equation in three level atom medium is obtained. The conclusions are consistent with experiment results. The shortcomings in treating this problem by using two-photon vecter model are pointed out.

Abstract:
Dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of low-dose aspirin (LDA) and other antiplatelet medications is recommended in patients with coronary heart disease, but it may increase the risk of esophageal lesion and bleeding. We describe a case of esophageal mucosal lesion that was difficult to distinguish from malignancy in a patient with a history of ingesting LDA and prasugrel after implantation of a drug-eluting stent. Multiple auxiliary examinations were performed to make a definite diagnosis. The patient recovered completely after concomitant acid-suppressive therapy. Based on these findings, we strongly argue for the evaluation of the risk of gastrointestinal mucosal injury and hemorrhage if LDA therapy is required, and we stress the paramount importance of using drug combinations in individual patients.

Abstract:
We perform a theoretical investigation on the Goos-H\"achen (GH) shift in one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) containing left-handed metamaterials (LHMs). We find an unusal effect of the GH shift near the photonic band-crossing structure, which is located at the condition, $% -k_{z}^{(A)}d_{A}=k_{z}^{(B)}d_{B}=m\pi $ $(m=1,2,3...)$, under the inclined incident angle, here A denotes the LHM layer and B denotes the dielectric layer. Above the frequency of the band-crossing point (BCP), the GH shift changes from negative to positive as the incident angle increases, while the GH shift changes reversely below the BCP frequency. This effect is explained in terms of the phase property of the band-crossing structure.

Abstract:
Many experiments have shown that locality-realism theory is at variance with quantum mechanics predictions. Although locality and realism, which are two different conceptions, are given respective definition, the descriptions of the both are a little of abstract when they are applied to real experimental situations. The abstract descriptions result in difficulty for one to judge whether the variance come from locality or realism or both. Here we provide more detailed descriptions of locality and realism, and show that any system being in a pure state or a non-maximally mixed state has property of non-realism. We also present experimental schemes feasible under current technologies to test the non-locality realsim. The connections between non-locality and entanglement and correlation are also discussed.

Abstract:
The electronic transport properties and band structures for the graphene-based one-dimensional (1D) superlattices with periodic squared potentials are investigated. It is found that a new Dirac point is formed, which is exactly located at the energy which corresponds to the zero (volume) averaged wavenumber inside the 1D periodic potentials. The location of such a new Dirac point is robust against variations in the lattice constants, and it is only dependent on the ratio of potential widths. The zero-averaged wavenumber gap associated with the new Dirac point is insensitive to both the lattice constant and the structural disorder, and the defect mode in the zero-averaged wavenumber gap is weakly dependent on the insident angles of carriers.

Abstract:
Optical diodes controlling the flow of light are of principal significance for optical information processing 1. They transmit light from an input to an output, but not in reverse direction. This breaking of time reversal symmetry is typically achieved via non-linear 2,3 or magnetic effects 4, which imposes limits to all-optical control 5-7, on-chip integration 7-11, or single-photon operation 12. Here, we propose an optical diode which requires neither magnetic fields nor strong input fields. It is based on a flying photonic crystal. Due to the Doppler effect, the crystal has a band gap with frequency depending on the light propagation direction relative to the crystal motion. Counter-intuitively, our setup does not involve the movement of any material parts. Rather, the flying photonic crystal is realized by optically inducing a spatially periodic but moving modulation of the optical properties of a near-resonant medium. The flying crystal not only opens perspectives for optical diodes operating at low light levels or integrated in small solid state devices, but also enables novel photonic devices such as optically tunable mirrors and cavities.

Abstract:
We study cooperative single-photon spontaneous emission from N multilevel atoms for different atomic distributions in optical vector theory. Instead of the average approximation for interatomic distance or the continuum approximation (sums over atoms replaced by integrals) for atomic distribution, the positions of every atom are taken into account by numerical calculation. It is shown that the regularity of atomic distribution has considerable influence on cooperative spontaneous emission. For a small atomic sample (compared with radiation wavelength), to obtain strong superradiance not only needs the uniform excitation (the Dicke state) but also requires the uniform atomic distribution. For a large sample, the uniform atomic distribution is beneficial to subradiance of the Dicke state, while the influence of atomic distribution on the timed Dicke state is weak and its time evolution obeys exponential decay approximately. In addition, we also investigate the corresponding emission spectrum and verify the directed emission for the timed Dicke state for a large atomic sample.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the propagation of two-mode spatially Gaussian-entangled quantum light fields passing through the turbulence atmosphere. From the propagation formula of the two-mode wave function in the position representation, we have derived the analytical expressions for the fidelity, purity and logarithmic negativity (entanglement) of the resulting quantum state after the long-distance atmospheric transportation. Based on the derived formulae, the effects of the atmospheric turbulences on the evolutions of quantum properties of the resulting two-mode quantum state are discussed in detail under different input parameters of the initial two-mode quantum state. The results show that the maximal distributing distance of quantum entanglement is strongly dependent on the atmospheric conditions: when the atmospheric turbulence becomes stronger and stronger, the maximal distance becomes shorter and shorter, and both the fidelity and purity decrease quicker and quicker as functions of propagating distances. Under a certain atmospheric condition, with the increasing of the input entanglement of the initial two-mode spatially Gaussian-entangled quantum state, the maximal distributing distance for preserving the entanglement gradually increases and always has a saturated (upper) limitation, and both the evolutions of the fidelity and purity are affected by the input parameters of the initial two-mode quantum state, Finally the optimal parameters of the input two-mode quantum state with the fixed input entanglement are discussed in order to obtain the optimal transfer distribution of the quantum entanglement over a long distance under a certain atmosphere. Our theoretical results are very helpful for building the distribution of the quantum entanglement via free-space atmosphere link.

Abstract:
Group delay for a reflected light pulse from a weakly absorbing dielectric slab is theoretically investigated, and large negative group delay is found for weak absorption near a resonance of the slab ($Re(kd)=m\pi$). The group delays for both the reflected and transmitted pulses will be saturated with the increase of the absorption.