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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23246 matches for " HE Canfei "
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A Literature Review on Geographical Concentration of Industries

HE Canfei,LIU Yang,

地理科学进展 , 2006,
Abstract: The geographical concentration of employments and establishments is pervasive. Companies and plants are not distributed uniformly in space, but rather agglomerate in some places. Both location theories and trade theories could be applied to explain the geographical concentration of industries. Classical and neoclassical location theories emphasize the role of transportation costs, labor costs, demand and locational interdependence in promoting spatial clustering of industries. Behavioralists stress the importance of uncertainties, information and knowledge. Strategic perspectives highlight the strategic interactions between related economic agents in locational decisions. Structural location theories relate industrial locations to industrial organization and industrial linkages. In the existing theoretical literature, three broad families of trade models are related to geographic concentration: the neoclassical trade models, new trade models and new economic geography models. In the neoclassical trade theories, the spatial pattern is formed through inter-industry specialization with industries settling in locations with comparative advantages. New trade models are characterized by increasing returns to scale, product differentiation and monopolistic competition. Scale economies provide regions with incentives to specialize even in the absence of differences in their technology or resoure endowments, and make firms to concentrate their production in a few locations. In the new economic geography models, the distribution of economic activities becomes entirely endoenous. Geographic concentration is driven by the interaction of transportation costs and scale economies, which creates demand and cost linkages. Empirical studies on geographical concentration of industries confirm a variety of significant variables including resource endowment, market demand, internal scale economies, external economies, industrial linkages and trade liberalization.
An Empirical Study on the Locational Choices of Foreign Banks in China

HE Canfei,FU Rong,

地理学报 , 2009,
Abstract: The gradual approach of reforms and deregulations in China's banking sector has guided foreign banks in China. Foreign banks are highly concentrated in Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Tianjin and Xiamen. They initially chose special economic zones and the capital city of Beijing, later diffused to Shanghai, Tianjin, Dalian and Guangzhou, and recently to some inland cities. Branches or sub-branches are more likely to agglomerate in Shanghai while representative offices favor both Beijing and Shanghai...
Industrial Agglomeration and Sectoral Distribution of Foreign Direct Investment: A Case Study of Beijing

HE Canfei,LIU Yang,

地理学报 , 2006,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the systematic forces that determine the sectoral distribution of foreign investment. Unlike the existing literature, this study highlights the importance of industrial agglomeration and industrial linkage in attracting foreign investment. Using a panel dataset of two-digit manufacturing industries in Beijing during the period 1999-2004, this study finds that geographically agglomerated industries with strong intra-industrial linkages attract much foreign investment. Previous foreign investments have demonstration effects, information spillover effects and linkage effects, leading to industrial concentration of foreign investment. Investors also highly favor capital and technology intensive industries and are drawn to the most profitable and exporting industries, but avoid industries with high effective wage rates and high entry barriers. This study provides strong evidence to support that competitive and comparative advantages of local industries are critical to allure foreign investment. The existence of industrial clusters certainly heightens a city's attractiveness to foreign investment.
Geogr aphical Concentr ation and Agglomer ation of Industr ies: Measur ement and Identification
产业地理集中、产业集聚与产业集群: 测量与辨识

HE Canfei,PAN Fenghua,

地理科学进展 , 2007,
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review on the measurement of geographical concentration and agglomeration of industries.Indices of concentration should meet the following criteria:(1) being comparable across industries and spatial scales;(2) taking a unique(or known) value under the null hypothesis that there is no systematic component to the location of the industry;(3) the significance of the results should be reported where appropriate;and(4) measures should be unbiased with respect to arbitrary changes to the spatial classification and industrial classification.There are many concentration indices,including coefficients of variation,Herfindahl index,Hoover coefficient,Entropy index,Theil index and Gini coefficient.Those aggregate measures of geographical concentration,however,ignore the impact of plant distributions on geographical concentration of industries.Based on the model of plant locational choices,economists propose agglomeration indices designated to measure the excess of raw geographic concentration on productive concentration.However,both concentration and agglomeration measures only describe the location of industries on a single scale based on administrative regions.Distance-based methods,such as Ripley's K function,serve to describe the spatial structure of industries at different scales at the same time.Existing literature also attempts to propose quantitative methods to identify industrial clusters.Location quotients and standardized locational quotients,spatial and industrial linkages,factor analysis and graphic methods based on input output have been applied.The identification of industrial clusters not only requires the consideration of industrial linkage,but also geographical proximity.
A Literature Review on FDI Location

LIU Zuoli,HE Canfei,

地理科学进展 , 2009,
Abstract: 尽管学术界至今未能形成一般性的外商直接投资(FDI)区位理论,但已有的大量研究却对加深理解FDI的区位选择规律做出了重要贡献.中国作为一个成功转型国家,在华FDI区位研究早已成为各界关注的热点问题之一.本文从区位理论和FDI理论两方面梳理FDI区位研究的理论基础后,回顾并评述了在华FDI区位研究进展,并提出了其未来发展中需要完善的相关命题.早期的研究以定性描述为主,从20世纪90年代中期开始转入利用计量经济模型对影响在华FDI区位选择的因素进行识别;研究主要集中在省区尺度,识别出的区位因子主要包括成本、市场、集聚和制度等.FDI在东道国的区位选择行为是"区域-产业-企业"共同作用的结果,在识别东道国区位要素的基础上,已有文献同时也关注了来源国效应、产业特征与企业属性和时间演化对FDI区位决策的影响.未来研究中需要加强对新兴经济体FDI区位模型的一般性讨论,强化"区域-产业-企业"系统研究,并关注基于功能视角的在华FDI(跨国公司)区位研究.
Economic Transition and Convergence of Regional Industrial Structure in China

HE Canfei,LIU Zuoli,WANG Liang,

地理学报 , 2008,
Abstract: China has undergone substantial industrial restructuring since the economic transition. The triple process of marketization, globalization and decentralization has a significant influence on the changes of industrial structure in Chinese provinces. Marketization and globalization may motivate provinces to develop industries based on their comparative advantages while decentralization may work in the opposite way. There are forces that stimulate the structural convergence among Chinese provinces and also forces that lead to industrial structural divergence. Using data from the first economic census conducted in 2004, this paper finds out that Chinese provinces are quite similar in their industrial structures. Industries contributing to the convergence of industrial compositions among Chinese provinces differ in different time periods. Provinces with similar industrial structure share a number of common characteristics. Statistical results indicate that marketization has enhanced the role of comparative advantage endowed in natural resources, stimulating the divergence of industrial structures of Chinese provinces with different resource endowments while encouraging provinces with comparable endowments to develop similar industries. However, decentralization generates economic fragmentation of domestic markets, fueling inter-provincial protectionism and rational imitation, and leading to the convergence of industrial structures among Chinese provinces. Globalization has two effects. On the one hand, the globalized provinces have been converging in their industrial structures. On the other hand, the globalized provinces have rather different industrial structures from the underperformed provinces in exports and utilization of FDI. The empirical results imply that economic transition and its consequences are critical in understanding the industrial restructuring in China.
Linking the Doubly Constr ained Gr avity Model and the Tr anspor tation Model for Tr ip Distr ibutions: A New Approach

LIANG Jinshe,HE Canfei,ZHANG Hua,

地理学报 , 2007,
Abstract: The premise condition of doubly constrained gravity model is the same as that of transportation model in linear programming, but the results derived from the models are diverse because of the different behavior assumptions of travelers. It has been proved by Evans that the parameter β in doubly constrained gravity model represents the relative importance of total transportation costs and the possibility of the trip distribution. Based on dual programming of transportation problem and uncertain utility method put forward by Beckmannn & Wallance and Golob & Beckmannn, this study establishes the relationship between doubly constrained gravity model and transportation model. This paper discovers that the parameter " in doubly constrained gravity model goes to positive-infinity and the total transportation costs of trip distribution derived from doubly constrained gravity model meet minimum level as the standard deviation of probability density distribution function for traveler's utility goes to zero. This paper points further out that the balance factors in doubly constrained gravity model reflect market adjustment of the price for travel ends services and the consumer surplus of travelers. Using this method, trip distribution on airlines between seven cities in China in 2003 is simulated. The result also indicates that the difference of travel ends and consumer preferences, substitution of transportation tools, and variety of travel purposes may lead to simulation error and the error can be reduced by transportation cost parameter adjustment.
Locational Study of Foreign Enterprises in Beijing Based on an Ordered Probit Model

HE Canfei,LIANG Jinshe,ZHANG Hua,

地理学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Foreign direct investment has been a key driving force for China's urban development since the economic reform and opening up. Beijing is one of the favored locations by foreign investors. Foreign enterprises in Beijing have played a significant role in restructuring its production spaces and industrial compositions. Compared with their domestic counterparts, foreign enterprises are rational decision-makers and have more flexibility and freedom in choosing their locations. Governed by market forces, foreign enterprises are not randomly distributed within a city and their locational patterns are detectable. Based on data from the second census of basic units, this paper attempts to picture the spatial patterns of foreign enterprises in Beijing. Efforts are further made to investigate the locational behavior of foreign enterprises by incorporating firm-specific, industry-specific and location-specific factors in an ordered probit model (OPM). Empirical results show that foreign enterprises in manufacturing tend to agglomerate in the central city, but being diffused to the remote suburbs and having indeed promoted the industrial suburbanization in Beijing. Statistical results suggest that large and newly established manufacturing enterprises favor the suburbs while wholly foreign owned manufacturing enterprises and those producing multiple types of products tend to locate in the inner city. Industrial agglomeration pushes foreign manufacturers to the suburbs. Industry-specific factors play a crucial role in determining locations of foreign enterprises in Beijing. Those in resource and labor intensive sectors are inclined to locate in the suburbs while those in capital and technology intensive sectors are likely to favor the central city. The results have important policy implications for urban industrial restructuring in Beijing.
Geographical Concentration and Provincial Specialization of Chinese Manufacturing Industries

HE Canfei,XIE Xiuzhen,

地理学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Economic transition introduced market forces and globalizing forces into the Chinese economic system, resulting in dramatic spatial transformation of manufacturing industries. Using a panel dataset of two-digit manufacturing industries by province during the period 1980-2003, this study found that Chinese manufacturing industries have been increasingly concentrated and Chinese provinces have become more diversified in their industrial structure. However, most industries experienced a spatially dispersing process in the 1980s and a polarizing process from the 1990s. While becoming more pluralistic, meanwhile most provinces diversified their industrial structure and turned more specialized in the late 1990s. Statistical results imply that comparative advantages, scale economies and globalization forces are the most important locational determinants of Chinese manufacturing industries. Utilization of foreign investments and exporting have indeed reinforced the importance of comparative advantages in locating Chinese industries. External economies stressed in economic geography models have not fostered industrial agglomerations at the provincial level.
Geographical Concentration of Manufactur ing Industries in China

HE Canfei,PAN Fenghua,SUN Lei,

地理学报 , 2007,
Abstract: This paper examines the micro foundations of geographical concentration of Chinese manufacturing industries in China at very disaggregated levels using the most recent economic census data. The empirical results indicate that natural advantages, agglomeration economies and institutional changes together influence industrial location in China. Overall, industries bearing higher transportation costs and difficulty to ship are largely dispersed. Resource-based industries follow the pattem of natural advantages and show less agglomeration but metal mineral consuming industries are agglomerated. Trading establishments and foreign enterprises are heavily concentrated, confirming the importance of globalization effects. However, local protectionism has indeed discouraged industrial agglomeration, but provincial governments are more likely to succeed in exercising local protectionism policies and imitation strategy compared to the county governments. Agglomeration economies have done a better job in driving the geographical concentration of Chinese industries at the county level than at the province level. Proxies for knowledge spillovers are highly significant at the county level. The findings suggest that the spatial scale matters in understanding industrial clustering, and economic transition and its consequence are also critical in explaining the spatial pattem of Chinese industries.
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