Abstract:
Post-translational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is reversible and highly evolutionarily conserved from yeasts to humans. Unlike ubiquitination with a well-established role in protein degradation, sumoylation may alter protein function, activity, stability and subcellular localization. Members of SUMO-specific protease (SENP) family, capable of SUMO removal, are involved in the reversed conjugation process. Although SUMO-specific proteases are known to reverse sumoylation in many well-defined systems, their importance in mammalian development and pathogenesis remains largely elusive. In patients with neurodegenerative diseases, aberrant accumulation of SUMO-conjugated proteins has been widely described. Several aggregation-prone proteins modulated by SUMO have been implicated in neurodegeneration, but there is no evidence supporting a direct involvement of SUMO modification enzymes in human diseases. Here we show that mice with neural-specific disruption of SENP2 develop movement difficulties which ultimately results in paralysis. The disruption induces neurodegeneration where mitochondrial dynamics is dysregulated. SENP2 regulates Drp1 sumoylation and stability critical for mitochondrial morphogenesis in an isoform-specific manner. Although dispensable for development of neural cell types, this regulatory mechanism is necessary for their survival. Our findings provide a causal link of SUMO modification enzymes to apoptosis of neural cells, suggesting a new pathogenic mechanism for neurodegeneration. Exploring the protective effect of SENP2 on neuronal cell death may uncover important preventive and therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.

Abstract:
The behavior of whole ecosystems in humid climate zone in response to drought is less well documented. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange using the eddy covariance technique during 2003–2007 were made above a subtropical evergreen coniferous plantation in Southeast China. Seasonal distribution of precipitation and temperature was out of step during the summer, which resulted in droughts frequently. Gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and net ecosystem production (NEP) showed clear seasonality, with low rates during seasonal drought and in winter. The exponential response of monthly GEP and RE to air temperature provided us an implication that monthly NEP was less sensitive and only increased linearly. However, the function response of monthly NEP and its components (GEP and RE) disappeared under high temperature and low moisture. Monthly and year RE showed a linear and positive dependence on the corresponding GEP, with statistically significant. Annual NEP varied among years from 306 to 430 g C m 2 (mean 395, SD 50). Interannual variability in NEP was controlled primarily by air temperature and the ratio of precipitation and evapotranspiration that affected the RE/GEP ratio, which varied between 0.76 and 0.81 (mean 0.78, SD 0.02).

Abstract:
This article compares the concepts of enlightenment formulated by M. Mendelssohn in the article “On the question: what does ‘to enlighten’ mean?” and I. Kant in the article “An Answer to the Question: ‘What is Enlightenment?’”. The author emphasises the paramount significance of Kant’s Copernican turn, which assigns the agent the responsibility for everything they do and everything that depends on them and facilitates, inHabermas’s words, “the structural transformation of the public sphere”.

Abstract:
The behavior of whole ecosystems in humid climate zone in response to drought is less well documented. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange using the eddy covariance technique during 2003–2007 were made above a subtropical evergreen coniferous plantation in Southeast China. Seasonal distribution of precipitation and temperature was inconsistent during the summer, which resulted in droughts frequently. Gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and net ecosystem production (NEP) showed clear seasonality, with low rates during droughts and in winter. With statistical significance, the monthly GEP and RE increased exponentially with air temperature, but the monthly NEP was less sensitive and only increased linearly with air temperature. However, the function response of monthly NEP and its components (GEP and RE) disappeared under high temperature and low soil moisture. Monthly and yearly RE showed a statistically linear and positive dependence on the corresponding GEP. Annual NEP varied among years from 306 to 430 g C m 2 (mean 395, SD 50). Interannual variability in NEP was controlled primarily by air temperature and the ratio of precipitation and evapotranspiration that affected the RE/GEP ratio, which varied between 0.76 and 0.81 (mean 0.78, SD 0.02).

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to give some arithmatic identities for the Bernoulli and Euler numbers. These identities are derived from the several -adic integral equations on . 1. Introduction Let be a fixed odd prime number. Throughout this paper, , , and will denote the ring of -adic rational integers, the field of -adic rational numbers, and the completion of algebraic closure of , respectively. The -adic norm is normalized so that . Let be the set of natural numbers and . Let be the space of uniformly differentiable functions on . For , the bosonic -adic integral on is defined by and the fermionic -adic integral on is defined by Kim as follows (see [1–8]): The Euler polynomials, , are defined by the generating function as follows (see [1–16]): In the special case, , is called the th Euler number. By (1.3) and the definition of Euler numbers, we easily see that with the usual convention about replacing by (see [10]). Thus, by (1.3) and (1.4), we have where is the Kronecker symbol (see [9, 10, 17–19]). From (1.2), we can also derive the following integral equation for the fermionic -adic integral on as follows: see [1, 2]. By (1.3) and (1.6), we get Thus, by (1.7), we have see [1–8, 13–16]. The Bernoulli polynomials, , are defined by the generating function as follows: see [18]. In the special case, , is called the th Bernoulli number. From (1.9) and the definition of Bernoulli numbers, we note that see [1–19], with the usual convention about replacing by . By (1.9) and (1.10), we easily see that see [13]. From (1.1), we can derive the following integral equation on : where and . By (1.12), we have Thus, by (1.13), we can derive the following Witt’s formula for the Bernoulli polynomials: In [19], it is known that for , where if or . The purpose of this paper is to give some arithmetic identities involving Bernoulli and Euler numbers. To derive our identities, we use the properties of -adic integral equations on . 2. Arithmetic Identities for Bernoulli and Euler Numbers Let us take the bosonic -adic integral on in (1.15) as follows: On the other hand, we get By (2.1) and (2.2), we get Therefore, by (2.3), we obtain the following theorem. Theorem 2.1. For , one has Now we consider the fermionic -adic integral on in (1.15) as follows: On the other hand, we get By (2.5) and (2.6), we get Therefore, by (2.7), we obtain the following theorem. Theorem 2.2. For , one has Replacing by in (1.15), we have the identity: Let us take the bosonic -adic integral on in (2.9) as follows: On the other hand, we see that By (2.10) and (2.11), we get Therefore, by (2.12),

Abstract:
Most high-end switches use an input-queued or a combined input- and output-queued architecture. The switch fabrics of these architectures commonly use an iterative scheduling system such as iSLIP. Iterative schedulers are not very scalable and can be slow. We propose a new scheduling algorithm that finds a maximum matching of a modified I/O mapping graph in a single iteration (hence noniterative). Analytically and experimentally, we show that it provides full throughput and incurs very low delay; it is fair and of low complexity; and it outperforms traditional iterative schedulers. We also propose two switch architectures suited for this scheduling scheme and analyze their hardware implementations. The arbiter circuit is simple, implementing only a FIFO queue. Only half as many arbiters for an iterative scheme are needed. The arbiters operate in complete parallel. They work for both architectures and make the hardware implementations sim-ple. The first architecture uses conventional queuing structure and crossbar. The second one uses separate memories for each queue at an input port and a special crossbar. This crossbar is simple and also has a re-duced diameter and distributed structure. We also show that the architectures have good scalability and re-quire almost no speedup.

Abstract:
The impact of air temperature in early growing season on the carbon sequestration of a subtropical coniferous plantation was discussed through analyzing the eddy flux observations at Qianyanzhou (QYZ) site in southern China from 2003 to 2008. This site experienced two cold early growing seasons (with temperature anomalies of 2–5 °C) in 2005 and 2008, and a severe summer drought in 2003. Results indicated that the low air temperature from January to March was the major factor controlling the inter-annual variations in net carbon uptake at this site, rather than the previously thought summer drought. The accumulative air temperature from January to February showed high correlation (R2=0.970, p<0.001) with the annual net ecosystem production (NEP). This was due to the controls of early-month temperature on the plant phenology developing and the growing season length at this subtropical site. The cold spring greatly shortened the growing season length and therefore reduced the carbon uptake period. The eddy flux observations showed a carbon loss of 4.04 g C m 2 per growing-season day at this coniferous forest site. On the other hand, the summer drought also reduced the net carbon uptake strength because the photosynthesis was more sensitive to water deficit stress than the ecosystem respiration. However, the impact of summer drought occurred within a relatively shorter period and the carbon sequestration went back to the normal level once the drought was relieved.

Abstract:
One big limitation of computational tools for analyzing ChIP-seq data is that most of them ignore non-unique tags (NUTs) that match the human genome even though NUTs comprise up to 60% of all raw tags in ChIP-seq data. Effectively utilizing these NUTs would increase the sequencing depth and allow a more accurate detection of enriched binding sites, which in turn could lead to more precise and significant biological interpretations. In this study, we have developed a computational tool, LOcating Non-Unique matched Tags (LONUT), to improve the detection of enriched regions from ChIP-seq data. Our LONUT algorithm applies a linear and polynomial regression model to establish an empirical score (ES) formula by considering two influential factors, the distance of NUTs to peaks identified using uniquely matched tags (UMTs) and the enrichment score for those peaks resulting in each NUT being assigned to a unique location on the reference genome. The newly located tags from the set of NUTs are combined with the original UMTs to produce a final set of combined matched tags (CMTs). LONUT was tested on many different datasets representing three different characteristics of biological data types. The detected sites were validated using de novo motif discovery and ChIP-PCR. We demonstrate the specificity and accuracy of LONUT and show that our program not only improves the detection of binding sites for ChIP-seq, but also identifies additional binding sites.

Abstract:
Biomass burning in the Indochina Peninsula (Indochina) is one of the important ozone sources in the low troposphere over East Asia in springtime. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data show that 20 000 or more active fire detections occurred annually in spring only from 2000 to 2007. In our tracer modeling study, we identify a new mechanism transporting the tracer over Indochina that is significantly different from the vertical transport mechanism over the equatorial areas such as Indonesia and Malaysia. Simulation results demonstrate that the leeside troughs over Indochina play a dominant role in the uplift of the tracer below 3 km, and that the strong westerlies prevailing above 3 km transport the tracer. These fundamental mechanisms have a major impact on the air quality downwind from Indochina over East Asia. The climatological importance of such a leeside trough is also discussed.

Abstract:
Accurate assessment the safety of landfills is an important task. However, it is still difficult to evaluate the safety of landfills, because this problem involved many influence factors of environmental conditions, historical hazards, geologic status, engineering planning, seismic impact, phenology and so on. In this study, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Delphi method are combined to investigate the influence factors of landfill safety and calculate the risk degree on sloping land. Based on the results of evaluated safety and the calculated risk of each sanitary landfill, a safety criterion of sanitary landfill will be developed using the site survey data at 66 landfills on sloping land in Taiwan. The results show that the safety criterion is suitable for checking the safety of sanitary landfill in hillside.