Abstract:
In this work we introduce a bosonization scheme for the low energy excitations of a 2D interacting electron gas in the presence of an uniform magnetic field under conditions where a large integral number of Landau levels are filled. We give an explicit construction for the electron operator in terms of the bosons. We show that the elementary neutral excitations, known as the magnetic excitons or magnetoplasma modes, can be described within a bosonic language and that it provides a quadratic bosonic Hamiltonian for the interacting electron system which can be easily diagonalized.

Abstract:
The absorption and emission spectra of transitions between a localized level and a two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a weak magnetic field, are calculated analytically. Adopting the Landau level bosonization technique developed in previous papers, we find an exact expression for the relative intensities of spectral lines. Their envelope function, governed by the interaction between the electron gas and the core hole, is reminescent of the famous Fermi edge singularity, which is recovered in the limit of a vanishing magnetic field.

Abstract:
The knowledge of electron and hole g-factors, their control and engineering are key for the usage of the spin degree of freedom for information processing in solid state systems. The electronic g-factor will be materials dependent, the effect being larger for materials with large spin-orbit coupling. Since electrons can be individually trapped into quantum dots in a controllable manner, they may represent a good platform for the implementation of quantum information processing devices. Here we use self-assembled quantum dots of InAs embedded in GaAs for the g-factor control and engineering.

Abstract:
In this work we present a model and a method to study integer quantum Hall (IQH) systems. Making use of the Landau levels structure we divide these two dimensional systems into a set of interacting one dimensional gases, one for each guiding center. We show that the so-called strong field approximation, used by Kallin and Halperin and by MacDonald, is equivalent, in first order, to a forward scattering approximation and analyze the IQH systems within this approximation. Using an appropriate variation of the Landau level bosonization method we obtain the dispersion relations for the collective excitations and the single particle spectral functions. These results evidence a behavior typical of non-normal strongly correlated systems, including the spin-charge splitting of the single particle spectral function. We discuss the origin of this behavior in the light of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and the bosonization of two dimensional electron gases.

Abstract:
The magnetic structure and fluctuations of tetragonal GdRhIn5 were studied by resonant x-ray diffraction at the Gd LII and LIII edges, followed by a renormalization group analysis for this and other related Gd-based compounds, namely Gd2IrIn8 and GdIn3. These compounds are spin-only analogs of the isostructural Ce-based heavy-fermion superconductors. The ground state of GdRhIn5 shows a commensurate antiferromagnetic spin structure with propagation vector tau = (0,1/2, 1/2), corresponding to a parallel spin alignment along the a-direction and antiparallel alignment along b and c. A comparison between this magnetic structure and those of other members of the Rm(Co,Rh,Ir)n In3m+2n family (R =rare earth, n = 0, 1; m = 1, 2) indicates that, in general, tau is determined by a competition between first-(J1) and second-neighbor(J2) antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions. While a large J1 /J2 ratio favors an antiparallel alignment along the three directions (the so-called G-AFM structure), a smaller ratio favors the magnetic structure of GdRhIn5 (C-AFM). In particular, it is inferred that the heavy-fermion superconductor CeRhIn5 is in a frontier between these two ground states, which may explain its non-collinear spiral magnetic structure. The critical behavior of GdRhIn5 close to the paramagnetic transition at TN = 39 K was also studied in detail. A typical second-order transition with the ordered magnetization critical parameter beta = 0.35 was experimentally found, and theoretically investigated by means of a renormalization group analysis.

Abstract:
The damped harmonic oscillator is a workhorse for the study of dissipation in quantum mechanics. However, despite its simplicity, this system has given rise to some approximations whose validity and relation to more refined descriptions deserve a thorough investigation. In this work, we apply a method that allows us to diagonalize exactly the dissipative Hamiltonians that are frequently adopted in the literature. Using this method we derive the conditions of validity of the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) and show how this approximate description relates to more general ones. We also show that the existence of dissipative coherent states is intimately related to the RWA. Finally, through the evaluation of the dynamics of the damped oscillator, we notice an important property of the dissipative model that has not been properly accounted for in previous works; namely, the necessity of new constraints to the application of the factorizable initial conditions.

Abstract:
We study the effect of a random Flory-Huggins parameter in a symmetric diblock copolymer melt which is expected to occur in a copolymer where one block is near its structural glass transition. In the clean limit the microphase segregation between the two blocks causes a weak, fluctuation induced first order transition to a lamellar state. Using a renormalization group approach combined with the replica trick to treat the quenched disorder, we show that beyond a critical disorder strength, that depends on the length of the polymer chain, the character of the transition is changed. The system becomes dominated by strong randomness and a glassy rather than an ordered lamellar state occurs. A renormalization of the effective disorder distribution leads to nonlocal disorder correlations that reflect strong compositional fluctuation on the scale of the radius of gyration of the polymer chains. The reason for this behavior is shown to be the chain length dependent role of critical fluctuations, which are less important for shorter chains and become increasingly more relevant as the polymer length increases and the clean first order transition becomes weaker.

Abstract:
MnAs films grown on GaAs (001) exhibit a progressive transition between hexagonal (ferromagnetic) and orthorhombic (paramagnetic) phases at wide temperature range instead of abrupt transition during the first-order phase transition. The coexistence of two phases is favored by the anisotropic strain arising from the constraint on the MnAs films imposed by the substrate. This phase coexistence occurs in ordered arrangement alternating periodic terrace steps. We present here a method to study the surface morphology throughout this transition by means of specular and diffuse scattering of soft x-rays, tuning the photon energy at the Mn 2p resonance. The results show the long-range arrangement of the periodic stripe-like structure during the phase coexistence and its period remains constant, in agreement with previous results using other techniques.

Abstract:
We investigate the competition between the dipolar and the exchange interaction in a ferromagnetic slab with finite thickness and finite width. From an analytical approximate expression for the Ginzburg-Landau effective Hamiltonian, it is shown that, within a self-consistent Hartree approach, a stable modulated configuration arises. We study the transition between the disordered phase and two kinds of modulated configurations, namely, striped and bubble phases. Such transitions are of the first-order kind and the striped phase is shown to have lower energy and a higher spinodal limit than the bubble one. It is also observed that striped configurations corresponding to different modulation directions have different energies. The most stable are the ones in which the modulation vanishes along the unlimited direction, which is a prime effect of the slab's geometry together with the competition between the two distinct types of interaction. An application of this model to the domain structure of MnAs thin films grown over GaAs substrates is discussed and general qualitative properties are outlined and predicted, like the number of domains and the mean value of the modulation as functions of temperature.

Abstract:
We present a theory for inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in the pseudo-gap regime of the underdoped high-$T_c$ cuprates. We show that superconducting phase fluctuations greatly affect the temperature and frequency dependence of the spin-susceptibility, $\chi''$, probed by both experimental techniques. This result explains the appearance of a {\it resonance peak}, observed in INS experiments, below a temperature $T_0 > T_c$. In the same temperature regime, we find that the $^{63}$Cu spin-lattice relaxation rate, $1/T_1$, measured in NMR experiments, is suppressed. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the available experimental data.