Abstract:
We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances) and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field). The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km 1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current) in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981).

Abstract:
We present a review of selected data-analysis methods that are frequently applied in studies of ionospheric electrodynamics and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling using ground-based and space-based data sets. Our focus is on methods that are data driven (not simulations or statistical models) and can be used in mesoscale studies, where the analysis area is typically some hundreds or thousands of km across. The selection of reviewed methods is such that most combinations of measured input data (electric field, conductances, magnetic field and currents) that occur in practical applications are covered. The techniques are used to solve the unmeasured parameters from Ohm's law and Maxwell's equations, possibly with help of some simplifying assumptions. In addition to reviewing existing data-analysis methods, we also briefly discuss possible extensions that may be used for upcoming data sets.

Abstract:
In this study we present a new method to estimate ionospheric electric fields and currents using ground magnetic recordings and measured or modeled ionospheric electric conductivity as the input data. This problem has been studied extensively in the past, and the standard analysis technique for such a set of input parameters is known as the KRM method (Kamide et al., 1981). The new method presented in this study makes use of the same input data as the traditional KRM method, but differs significantly from it in the mathematical approach that is used. In the KRM method one tries to find such a potential electric field, that the resulting current system has the same curl as the ionospheric equivalent currents. In the new method we take a different approach, so that we determine such a curl-free current system that, together with the equivalent currents, it is consistent with a potential electric field. This approach results in a slightly different equation, that makes better use of the information contained in the equivalent currents. In this paper we concentrate on regional studies, where the (unknown) boundary conditions at the borders of the analysis area play a significant role in the KRM solution. In order to overcome this complication, we formulate a novel numerical algorithm to be used with our new calculation method. This algorithm is based on the Cartesian elementary current systems (CECS). With CECS the boundary conditions are implemented in a natural way, making regional studies less prone to errors. We compare the traditional KRM method and our new CECS-based formulation using several realistic models of typical meso-scale phenomena in the auroral ionosphere, including a uniform electrojet, the Ω-bands and the westward traveling surge. It is found that the error in the CECS results is typically about 20%–40%, whereas the errors in the KRM results are significantly larger.

Abstract:
We study the role of ionospheric induction in different commonly observed ionospheric situations. These include an intensifying electrojet, westward travelling surge (WTS) and Ω-band. We use data based, realistic models for these phenomena and calculate the inductive electric fields that are created due to the temporal variations of ionospheric currents. The ionospheric induction problem is solved using a new calculation technique that can handle non-uniform, time-dependent conductances and electric fields of any geometry. We find that in some situations inductive effects are not negligible and the ionospheric electric field is not a pure potential field, but has a significant induced rotational part. In the WTS and Ω-band models the induced electric field is concentrated in a small area, where the time derivatives are largest. In the electrojet model the induced field is significant over a large part of the jet area. In these examples the induced electric field has typical values of few mV/m, which amounts to several tens of percents of the potential electric field present at the same locations. The induced electric field is associated with ionospheric and field aligned currents (FAC), that modify the overall structure of the current systems. Especially the induced FAC are often comparable to the non-inductive FAC, and may thus modify the coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere in the most dynamical situations. We also present some examples with very simple ionospheric current systems, where the effect of different ionospheric parameters on the induction process is studied.

Abstract:
Rapid changes in the ionospheric current system give rise to induction currents in the conducting ground that can significantly contribute to magnetic and especially electric fields at the Earth's surface. Previous studies have concentrated on the surface fields, as they are important in, for example, interpreting magnetometer measurements or in the studies of the Earth's conductivity structure. In this paper we investigate the effects of induction fields at the ionospheric altitudes for several realistic ionospheric current models (Westward Travelling Surge, Ω-band, Giant Pulsation). Our main conclusions are: 1) The secondary electric field caused by the Earth's induction is relatively small at the ionospheric altitude, at most 0.4 mV/m or a few percent of the total electric field; 2) The primary induced field due to ionospheric self-induction is locally important, ~ a few mV/m, in some "hot spots", where the ionospheric conductivity is high and the total electric field is low. However, our approximate calculation only gives an upper estimate for the primary induced electric field; 3) The secondary magnetic field caused by the Earth's induction may significantly affect the magnetic measurements of low orbiting satellites. The secondary contribution from the Earth's currents is largest in the vertical component of the magnetic field, where it may be around 50% of the field caused by ionospheric currents. Keywords. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geomagnetic induction) – Ionosphere (electric fields and currents) Full Article (PDF, 582 KB) Citation: Vanham ki, H., Viljanen, A., and Amm, O.: Induction effects on ionospheric electric and magnetic fields, Ann. Geophys., 23, 1735-1746, doi:10.5194/angeo-23-1735-2005, 2005. Bibtex EndNote Reference Manager XML

Abstract:
We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.

Abstract:
We investigate an omega-band event that took place above northern Scandinavia around 02:00–02:30 UT on 9 March 1999. In our analysis we use ground based magnetometer, optical and riometer measurements together with satellite based optical images. The optical and riometer data are used to estimate the ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductances, while ionospheric equivalent currents are obtained from the magnetometer measurements. These data sets are used as input in a local KRM calculation, which gives the ionospheric potential electric field as output, thus giving us a complete picture of the ionospheric electrodynamic state during the omega-band event. The overall structure of the electric field and field-aligned current (FAC) provided by the local KRM method are in good agreement with previous studies. Also the E×B drift velocity calculated from the local KRM solution is in good qualitative agreement with the plasma velocity measured by the Finnish CUTLASS radar, giving further support for the new local KRM method. The high-resolution conductance estimates allow us to discern the detailed structure of the omega-band current system. The highest Hall and Pedersen conductances, ~50 and ~25 S, respectively, are found at the edges of the bright auroral tongue. Inside the tongue, conductances are somewhat smaller, but still significantly higher than typical background values. The electric field shows a converging pattern around the tongues, and the field strength drops from ~40 mV/m found at optically dark regions to ~10 mV/m inside the areas of enhanced conductivity. Downward FAC flow in the dark regions, while upward currents flow inside the auroral tongue. Additionally, sharp conductance gradients at the edge of an auroral tongue are associated with narrow strips of intense FACs, so that a strip of downward current flows at the eastern (leading) edge and a similar strip of upward current is present at the western (trailing) edge. The Joule heating follows the electric field pattern, so that it is diminished inside the bright auroral tongue.

Abstract:
Traditionally, due to observational constraints, ionospheric modelling and data analysis techniques have been devised either in one dimension (e.g. along a single radar beam), or in two dimensions (e.g. over a network of magnetometers). With new upcoming missions like the Swarm ionospheric multi-satellite project, or the EISCAT 3-D project, the time has come to take into account variations in all three dimensions simultaneously, as they occur in the real ionosphere. The link between ionospheric electrodynamics and the neutral atmosphere circulation which has gained increasing interest in the recent years also intrinsically requires a truly 3-dimensional (3-D) description. In this paper, we identify five major science questions that need to be addressed by 3-D ionospheric modelling and data analysis. We briefly review what proceedings in the young field of 3-D ionospheric electrodynamics have been made in the past to address these selected question, and we outline how these issues can be addressed in the future with additional observations and/or improved data analysis and simulation techniques. Throughout the paper, we limit the discussion to high-latitude and mesoscale ionospheric electrodynamics, and to directly data-driven (not statistical) data analysis.

Abstract:
Detection of the signal’s breakdown points is important for many science and engineering applications. Numerous signal processing methods have been used for this purpose. Of these, the adaptive prediction is simple and easy to implement, however; its simplicity and robustness are hindered by the required delay in the input signal. This paper introduces an efficient alternative to the adaptive prediction in the application of breakdown and inflection points’ detection. Unlike the adaptive predictor, the proposed filter doesn’t require a delay in the primary input to produce the filter’s reference input, which significantly improves the computation speed and overcome the problem of performance sensitivity to the delay value. The Normalized Least-Mean Squares algorithm was used to realize both the adaptive predictor and the proposed filter. The filters were implemented in LabVIEW system design software. The performances of the filters were studied using simulated signals and the simulation results were verified using an experimental signal. The simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed filter efficiently detects the signal breakdowns. Furthermore, the simplicity of the filter offered a significant improvement in the computation speed.

Abstract:
Immunotherapy aims to assist the natural immune system in achieving control over viral infection. Various immunotherapy formats have been evaluated in either therapy-naive or therapy-experienced HIV-infected patients over the last 20 years. These formats included non-antigen specific strategies such as cytokines that stimulate immunity or suppress the viral replication, as well as antibodies that block negative regulatory pathways. A number of HIV-specific therapeutic vaccinations have also been proposed, using in vivo injection of inactivated virus, plasmid DNA encoding HIV antigens, or recombinant viral vectors containing HIV genes. A specific format of therapeutic vaccines consists of ex vivo loading of autologous dendritic cells with one of the above mentioned antigenic formats or mRNA encoding HIV antigens. This review provides an extensive overview of the background and rationale of these different therapeutic attempts and discusses the results of trials in the SIV macaque model and in patients. To date success has been limited, which could be explained by insufficient quality or strength of the induced immune responses, incomplete coverage of HIV variability and/or inappropriate immune activation, with ensuing increased susceptibility of target cells. Future attempts at therapeutic vaccination should ideally be performed under the protection of highly active antiretroviral drugs in patients with a recovered immune system. Risks for immune escape should be limited by a better coverage of the HIV variability, using either conserved or mosaic sequences. Appropriate molecular adjuvants should be included to enhance the quality and strength of the responses, without inducing inappropriate immune activation. Finally, to achieve a long-lasting effect on viral control (i.e. a “functional cure”) it is likely that these immune interventions should be combined with anti-latency drugs and/or gene therapy.