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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 152857 matches for " H. Salazar "
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Genpolymorphismen und Geschlecht
H?ppner W,Salazar R
Blickpunkt der Mann , 2007,
Abstract: Seit langem ist bekannt, da die Suszeptibilit t für altersassoziierte komplexe Erkrankungen wie z. B. Diabetes mellitus Typ II, Arteriosklerose oder Osteoporose ebenso wie psychische Erkrankungen und das Ansprechen auf Medikamente geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede aufweist. Bisher hat man diesen Dimorphismus haupts chlich auf endokrinologische Unterschiede zurückgeführt. In letzter Zeit werden zunehmend Arbeiten publiziert, in denen molekularbiologische Mechanismen aufgezeigt werden, die bewirken, da trotz identischer genetischer Information Gene geschlechtsspezifisch unterschiedlich aktiv sind. Verantwortlich sind Modifikationen auf DNS-Ebene (Methylierung) sowie kovalente Modifikationen von Kernproteinen (Acetylierung von Histonen), die sich zwischen den Geschlechtern deutlich unterscheiden. Diese als Epigenetik bezeichneten Ver nderungen sind teilweise vererbt und teilweise durch Umwelteinflüsse gepr gt. Sie führen auch dazu, da Polymorphismen in autosomalen Genen (Single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) geschlechtsspezifisch unterschiedliche Auspr gungen zeigen und ihre Assoziation mit Erkrankungen bei Frauen und M nnern deutliche Unterschiede aufweist. Bei der Behandlung von Krankheiten und bei der Durchführung von Studien zur genetischen Disposition für komplexe Erkrankungen und Studien für Arzneiwirkstoffe müssen in Zukunft geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte viel st rker berücksichtigt werden als bisher.
Infusión intermitente de inotrópicos en la insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada
Ventura,Héctor O; Salazar,Holger P;
Revista Costarricense de Cardiología , 2001,
Abstract: es conveniente seleccionar adecuadamente a los pacientes en los que se administrará terapia con agentes inotrópicos. se deben descartar potenciales causas reversibles de insuficiencia cardíaca y evaluar factores que puedan precipitar una descompensación. los pacientes deben estar tratados con dosis máximas de medicamentos convencionales. los niveles electrolíticos, especialmente potasio y magnesio deben ser controlados periódicamente con el fin de evitar arritmias, manteniendo el potasio por encima de 4meq/l y el magnesio por encima de 2meq/l, y evitar que los niveles de digoxina sean mayores de 2ng/dl. deben seguir adecuadamente las instrucciones médicas y ser dotados de una educación adecuada acerca de su enfermedad junto con sus familiares cercanos. en conclusión, las indicaciones para el uso de agentes inotrópicos en el tratamiento de insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada deberían estar limitadas a: 1. pacientes que estén en espera de trasplante cardíaco en los que se pueda utilizarlos como un puente hasta que sean trasplantados. 2. se puede utilizarlos a corto plazo después de cirugía cardíaca para dar un soporte adecuado, hasta que el corazón del paciente comience a funcionar adecuadamente. 3. como ya hemos discutido extensamente, se pueden utilizar en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca inestable y refractaria, como un puente hacia el uso de beta bloqueantes. 4. en pacientes con descompensación aguda. 5. finalmente se deberían utilizar en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada y que no son candidatos a trasplante cardíaco, en los cuales es indispensable brindarles una calidad de vida mas digna. idealmente, deben ser los pacientes los que escojan entre un tipo de medicamento que puede mejorar sus síntomas, pero a expensas de una disminución de su sobrevida. es decir, poder escoger entre calidad versus cantidad.
Parasitismo de Thyca callista (Gastropoda: Capulidae) sobre Phataria unifascialis (Asteroidea: Ophidiasteridae) en el Golfo de California, México
Salazar,Adriana; Reyes Bonilla,Héctor;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 1998,
Abstract: the parasitism incidence of the gastropod thyca callista on the asteroid phataria unifascialis was measured in 500 asteroids from 11 localities off the southern gulf of california, méxico. the intensity and prevalence of parasitism on p. unifascialis were 1.36 and 5%, respectively. in the study area, there was no significant relationships between latitude and parasite abundance, incidence and prevalence, but the sites where t. callista was most frequent were located near human settlements. most t. callista were found adjacent to the starfish mouths, probably because it is easier for them to feed there.
Infusión intermitente de inotrópicos en la insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada
Héctor O Ventura,Holger P Salazar
Revista Costarricense de Cardiología , 2001,
Abstract: Es conveniente seleccionar adecuadamente a los pacientes en los que se administrará terapia con agentes inotrópicos. Se deben descartar potenciales causas reversibles de insuficiencia cardíaca y evaluar factores que puedan precipitar una descompensación. Los pacientes deben estar tratados con dosis máximas de medicamentos convencionales. Los niveles electrolíticos, especialmente potasio y magnesio deben ser controlados periódicamente con el fin de evitar arritmias, manteniendo el potasio por encima de 4mEq/L y el magnesio por encima de 2mEq/L, y evitar que los niveles de digoxina sean mayores de 2ng/dl. Deben seguir adecuadamente las instrucciones médicas y ser dotados de una educación adecuada acerca de su enfermedad junto con sus familiares cercanos. En conclusión, las indicaciones para el uso de agentes inotrópicos en el tratamiento de insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada deberían estar limitadas a: 1. Pacientes que estén en espera de trasplante cardíaco en los que se pueda utilizarlos como un puente hasta que sean trasplantados. 2. Se puede utilizarlos a corto plazo después de cirugía cardíaca para dar un soporte adecuado, hasta que el corazón del paciente comience a funcionar adecuadamente. 3. Como ya hemos discutido extensamente, se pueden utilizar en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca inestable y refractaria, como un puente hacia el uso de beta bloqueantes. 4. En pacientes con descompensación aguda. 5. Finalmente se deberían utilizar en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca avanzada y que no son candidatos a trasplante cardíaco, en los cuales es indispensable brindarles una calidad de vida mas digna. Idealmente, deben ser los pacientes los que escojan entre un tipo de medicamento que puede mejorar sus síntomas, pero a expensas de una disminución de su sobrevida. Es decir, poder escoger entre calidad versus cantidad.
Parasitismo de Thyca callista (Gastropoda: Capulidae) sobre Phataria unifascialis (Asteroidea: Ophidiasteridae) en el Golfo de California, México
Adriana Salazar,Héctor Reyes Bonilla
Revista de Biología Tropical , 1998,
Abstract: The parasitism incidence of the gastropod Thyca callista on the asteroid Phataria unifascialis was measured in 500 asteroids from 11 localities off the southern Gulf of California, México. The intensity and prevalence of parasitism on P. unifascialis were 1.36 and 5%, respectively. In the study area, there was no significant relationships between latitude and parasite abundance, incidence and prevalence, but the sites where T. callista was most frequent were located near human settlements. Most T. callista were found adjacent to the starfish mouths, probably because it is easier for them to feed there.
Biosynthetic Potentials of Metabolites and Their Hierarchical Organization
Franziska Matth?us ,Carlos Salazar ,Oliver Ebenh?h
PLOS Computational Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000049
Abstract: A major challenge in systems biology is to understand how complex and highly connected metabolic networks are organized. The structure of these networks is investigated here by identifying sets of metabolites that have a similar biosynthetic potential. We measure the biosynthetic potential of a particular compound by determining all metabolites than can be produced from it and, following a terminology introduced previously, call this set the scope of the compound. To identify groups of compounds with similar scopes, we apply a hierarchical clustering method. We find that compounds within the same cluster often display similar chemical structures and appear in the same metabolic pathway. For each cluster we define a consensus scope by determining a set of metabolites that is most similar to all scopes within the cluster. This allows for a generalization from scopes of single compounds to scopes of a chemical family. We observe that most of the resulting consensus scopes overlap or are fully contained in others, revealing a hierarchical ordering of metabolites according to their biosynthetic potential. Our investigations show that this hierarchy is not only determined by the chemical complexity of the metabolites, but also strongly by their biological function. As a general tendency, metabolites which are necessary for essential cellular processes exhibit a larger biosynthetic potential than those involved in secondary metabolism. A central result is that chemically very similar substances with different biological functions may differ significantly in their biosynthetic potentials. Our studies provide an important step towards understanding fundamental design principles of metabolic networks determined by the structural and functional complexity of metabolites.
Intimate partner violence and early child growth: a community-based cohort study in Nicaragua
Mariano Salazar, Ulf H?gberg, Eliette Valladares, Lars-?ke Persson
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-82
Abstract: A pregnancy cohort of 478 women in León, Nicaragua, resulted in 461 live births. From this group, 81% (375/461) children were available for anthropometric follow-up at 40 to 46?months. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to assess the association between IPV and height-for-age Z-scores, adjusting for confounding factors.Sixty-three percent (236/375) of the mothers had been exposed to some form of IPV during pregnancy (emotional, physical, sexual or controlling behavior). After adjustment for confounding factors, maternal exposure to any IPV during pregnancy was associated with 0.24 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p?=?0.02). A separate analysis of each IPV type showed that emotional, physical or sexual IPV during pregnancy were not significantly associated with lower mean height-for-age Z-scores, whereas ever exposure to controlling behavior by the father of the child was related to 0.29 lower mean height-for-age Z-scores (p?<?0.01) When stratified by gender, these associations remained significant only for young girls.This study has contributed to the growing amount of evidence pointing to the pervasive effect of different forms of IPV on child health. Our study highlights the relevance of maternal autonomy for linear child growth, especially for young girls in the Nicaraguan context.Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a widespread public health problem that affects millions of women worldwide [1] and has severe physical and mental health consequences for mothers [2] and their children [3,4]. Women who experience physical or sexual IPV are often also exposed to a high level of controlling behavior by their partners [1].Impaired growth is an important health determinant in children and has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality in children under 5?years [5]. Different forms of Violence against Women (VAW) have been identified as factors related to impaired child growth in diverse cultural settings especially in low income countries. For example,
Bioinformatics meets systems biology
Carlos Salazar, Jana Schütze, Oliver Ebenh?h
Genome Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2006-7-1-303
Abstract: The efficient integration of bioinformatics and systems biology requires worldwide cooperation not only in the research of senior scientists but also in the research training of young scientists. To this end, a student-focused workshop on bioinformatics and systems biology http://www.biologie.hu-berlin.de/gk/ibsb2005 webcite was held last August at Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany. This was the fifth annual workshop held as part of a research collaboration between the Bioinformatics Program of Boston University in the USA, the Bioinformatics Center of Kyoto University in Japan, and the Berlin-located graduate program 'Dynamics and Evolution of Cellular and Macromolecular Processes'. This time the meeting had two main themes - the integration of genomic and chemical information in the analysis of the dynamics and topology of cellular regulatory networks, and the development of more accurate computational tools for the analysis of gene expression and the prediction of transcription-factor binding sites. Full papers accepted for the fifth workshop have been published in the Genome Informatics Series of the Japanese Society of Bioinformatics, edited by Satoru Miyano (University of Tokyo, Japan) http://www.jsbi.org/journal/GI16_1.html webcite.Trends in genome biology and bioinformatics were highlighted in the opening talk by Minoru Kanehisa (Kyoto University Bioinformatics Center, Japan), whose group is responsible for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg webcite. This stores molecular interaction networks and graphics, including metabolic pathways, regulatory pathways and molecular complexes. Kanehisa emphasized the importance of an integrated analysis of genomic and chemical information to predict the complete functional behaviors of cells, organisms and ecosystems. While traditional genomics and other 'omics' have contributed to our knowledge of the genes and proteins that make up a biological system, new chemi
Ending Intimate Partner Violence after pregnancy: Findings from a community-based longitudinal study in Nicaragua
Mariano Salazar, Eliette Valladares, Ann ?hman, Ulf H?gberg
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-350
Abstract: A longitudinal population-based study was conducted in León, Nicaragua at a demographic surveillance site. Women (n = 478) who were pregnant between 2002 and 2003 were interviewed, and 398 were found at follow-up, 2007. Partner abuse was measured using the WHO Multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence questionnaire. Women's socio demographic variables, perceived emotional distress, partner control, social resources, women's norms and attitudes towards IPV and help-seeking behaviours were also assessed. Ending of abuse was defined as having experienced any abuse in a lifetime or during pregnancy but not at follow-up. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were applied.Of the women exposed to lifetime or pregnancy IPV, 59% reported that their abuse ended. This finding took place in a context of a substantial shift in women's normative attitudes towards not tolerating abuse. At the family level, no or diminishing partner control [ORadj 6.7 (95%CI 3.5-13)] was associated with ending of abuse. At the societal level, high or improved social resources [ORadj 2.0 (95%CI 1.1.-3.7)] were also associated with the end of abuse.A considerable proportion of women reported end of violence. This might be related to a favourable change in women's norms and attitudes toward gender roles and violence and a more positive attitude towards interventions from people outside their family to end abuse. Maintaining and improving social resources and decreasing partner control and isolation are key interventions to ending abuse. Abuse inquiring may also play an important role in this process and must include health care provider's training and a referral system to be more effective. Interventions at the community level are crucial to reducing partner violence.While Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) figures are usually underreported and comparison between studies is difficult due to different abuse measurements[1], IPV is very common. In a review of population-based studies around the
Psicología Comunitaria: prácticas en Valparaíso y visión disciplinar de los académicos nacionales
Berroeta Torres,Héctor; Hatibovic Diaz,Fuad; Asún Salazar,Domingo;
Polis (Santiago) , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-65682012000100018
Abstract: the following essay is the result of a research that analyzes thecharacteristics of intervention practices and disciplinary development ofcommunitarian psychology in the country. the work was based on different studiesthat suggest there is a gap between the disciplinary framework and the interventionpractices. a survey was applied on a sample of fifty-one psychologists that work incommunity intervention in the valparaíso province, and later, a subsample of fiveof these psychologists and eight acknowledged national academics were interviewed.results confirm that the contents of the gap have worsened, giving priority toindividual interventions focused on the improvement of life conditions and mentalhealth of the participants. the research concludes that it is necessary to reconsider the contents and objectives of the discipline in the national context, in order toemphasize the social transformation that is inherent to it.
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