Abstract:
We present a dynamical analysis of the galaxy cluster Abell 970 based on a new set of radial velocities measured at ESO, Pic du Midi and Haute-Provence observatories. Our analysis indicates that this cluster has a substructure and is out of dynamical equilibrium. This conclusion is also supported by differences in the positions of the peaks of the surface density distribution and X-ray emission, as well as by the evidence of a large scale velocity gradient in the cluster. We also found a discrepancy between the masses inferred with the virial theorem and with the X-ray emission, what is expected if the galaxies and the gas inside the cluster are not in hydrostatic equilibrium. Abell 970 has a modest cooling flow, as is expected if it is out of equilibrium as suggested by Allen (1998). We propose that cooling flows may have an intermittent behavior, with phases of massive cooling flows being followed by phases without significant cooling flows after the acretion of a galaxy group massive enough to disrupt the dynamical equilibrium in the center of the clusters. A massive cooling flow will be established again, after a new equilibrium is achieved.

Abstract:
the clearance of long-acting progesterone in microspheres (p4la) in zebu animals and its potential for use in estrus synchronization were evaluated using 30 nelore and 30 crossbreed (holstein x zebu) heifers, with aging between 120 to 150-day-old and weighting 150kg in average. for each breed the animals were divided into three groups of ten animals each, gi= control group treated with saline; gii= treated with 450mg of p4la; and giii= treated with 750mg of long-acting progesterone (p4la). blood samples were colleted on days 0, 7 and 13 and analysed for progesterone using radioimmunoassay in solid phase. the serum concentration of progesterone was different on days 0, 7 and 13 in relation to the dose of p4la given. all treated animals presented basal values for progesterone on day 0, increased on day 7 and decreased on day 13, but with values over 1ng/ml. the results show that the drug was absorbed rapidly after its administration and remained in satisfactory concentration in the circulation until day 13. the average total concentration of serum progesterone was higher in nelore heifers when compared to the concentration in crossbreed ones, indicating difference in the metabolism of the drug between the two genetic groups.

Abstract:
we determined if the dorsal raphe nucleus (drn) exerts tonic control of basal and stimulated sodium and water intake. male wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were microinjected with phosphate buffer (pb-drn, n = 11) or 1 μg/0.2 μl, in a single dose, ibotenic acid (ibo-drn, n = 9 to 10) through a guide cannula into the drn and were observed for 21 days in order to measure basal sodium appetite and water intake and in the following situations: furosemide-induced sodium depletion (20 mg/kg, sc, 24 h before the experiment) and a low dose of dietary captopril (1 mg/g chow). from the 6th day after ibotenic acid injection ibo-drn rats showed an increase in sodium appetite (12.0 ± 2.3 to 22.3 ± 4.6 ml 0.3 m nacl intake) whereas pb-drn did not exceed 2 ml (p < 0.001). water intake was comparable in both groups. in addition to a higher dipsogenic response, sodium-depleted ibo-drn animals displayed an increase of 0.3 m nacl intake compared to pb-drn (37.4 ± 3.8 vs 21.6 ± 3.9 ml 300 min after fluid offer, p < 0.001). captopril added to chow caused an increase of 0.3 m nacl intake during the first 2 days (ibo-drn, 33.8 ± 4.3 and 32.5 ± 3.4 ml on day 1 and day 2, respectively, vs 20.2 ± 2.8 ml on day 0, p < 0.001). these data support the view that drn, probably via ascending serotonergic system, tonically modulates sodium appetite under basal and sodium depletion conditions and/or after an increase in peripheral or brain angiotensin ii.

Abstract:
we examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (hi-it) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (cpt) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. male adult wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (sed, n = 5), hi-it (n = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (mi-ct, n = 10). the trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (hi-it) and a 5% (mi-ct) overload. the hi-it group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the sed group. the maximal activities of cpt-i, cpt-ii, and citrate synthase were all increased in the hi-it group compared to the sed group (p < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by rt-pcr, of fatty acid binding protein (fabp; p < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (lpl; p < 0.05). lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min-1·mg protein-1) in hi-it (around 83%). we suggest that 8 weeks of hi-it enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. this adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both fabp and lpl in hi-it, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a "time-efficient" strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

Abstract:
In the present work we study the well-known Two Capacitor Problem from a new perspective. Although this problem has been thoroughly investigated, as far as we know there are no studies of the thermodynamic aspects of the discharge process. We use the Free Electron Gas Model to describe the electrons' energy levels in both capacitors in the low temperature regime. We assume that the capacitors and the resistor can exchange energy freely with a heat reservoir. We assume that the resistance is large enough to consider an isothermal heat exchange between the resistor and the heat reservoir. Thereby we obtain a positive entropy variation due to the discharge process, corroborating its irreversibility.

Abstract:
In this paper we show that there is a close relationship between the invariants characterizing the homogeneous vanishing of the local cohomology of the Rees algebra and the associated graded ring for the good filtrations case. We obtain relationships between the Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity of the fiber cone, associated graded ring, Rees algebra and reduction number for the good filtrations case.

Abstract:
Let $(A, \mathfrak{m})$ be a Noetherian local ring and $\mathfrak{F}=(I_{n})_{n\geq 0}$ a filtration. In this paper, we study the Gorenstein properties of the fiber cone $F(\mathfrak{F})$, where $\mathfrak{F}$ is a Hilbert filtration. Suppose that $F(\mathfrak{F})$ and $G(\mathfrak{F})$ are Cohen-Macaulay. If in addition, the associated graded ring $G(\mathfrak{F})$ is Gorenstein; similarly to the $I$-adic case, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition, in terms of lengths and minimal number of generators of ideals, for Gorensteiness of the fiber cone. Moreover, we find a description of the canonical module of $F(\mathfrak{F})$ and show that even in the Hilbert filtration case, the multiplicity of the canonical module of the fiber cone is upper bounded by multiplicity of the canonical modules of the associated graded ring.

Abstract:
In this paper, we prove some well-known results on local cohomology with respect to a pair of ideals in graded version, such as, Independence Theorem, Lichtenbaum-Harshorne Vanishing Theorem, Basic Finiteness and Vanishing Theorem, among others. Besides, we present a generalized version of Melkersson Theorem about Artinianess of modules and a result concerning Artinianess of local cohomology modules.

Abstract:
Let $(R,\mathfrak{m})$ be a quasi-unmixed local ring and $I$ an equimultiple ideal of $R$ of analytic spread $s$. In this paper, we introduce the equimultiple coefficient ideals. Fix $k\in \{1,...,s\}.$ The largest ideal $L$ containing $I$ such that $e_{i}(I_{\mathfrak{p}})=e_{i}(L_{\mathfrak{p}})$ for each $i \in \{1,...,k\}$ and each minimal prime $\mathfrak{p}$ of $I$ is called the $k$-th equimultiple coefficient ideal denoted by $I_{k}$. It is a generalization of the coefficient ideals firstly introduced by Shah \cite{S} for the case of $\mathfrak{m}$-primary ideals. We also see applications of these ideals. For instance, we show that the associated graded ring $G_{I}(R)$ satisfies the $S_{1}$ condition if and only if $I^{n}=(I^{n})_{1}$ for all $n$.