Abstract:
In this paper, a representation of the information-disturbance theorem based on the quantum Kolmogorov complexity that was defined by P. Vit′anyi has been examined. In the quantum information theory, the information-disturbance relationship, which treats the trade-off relationship between information gain and its caused disturbance, is a fundamental result that is related to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The problem was formulated in a cryptographic setting and the quantitative relationships between complexities have been derived.

Abstract:
On one-dimensional two-way infinite lattice system, a property of stationary (space-) translationally invariant states with nonvanishing current expectations are investigated. We consider GNS representation with respect to such a state, on which we have a group of space-time translation unitary operators. We show, by applying Goldstone-theorem-like argument,that spectrum of the unitary operators, energy-momentum spectrum with respect to the state, has a singularity at the origin.

Abstract:
A notion of entangled Markov chain was introduced by Accardi and Fidaleo in the context of quantum random walk. They proved that, in the finite dimensional case, the corresponding states have vanishing entropy density, but they did not prove that they are entangled. In the present note this entropy result is extended to the infinite dimensional case under the assumption of finite speed of hopping. Then the entanglement problem is discussed for spin 1/2, entangled Markov chains generated by a binary symmetric channel with hopping probability $1-q$. The von Neumann entropy of these states, restricted on a sublattice is explicitly calculated and shown to be independent of the size of the sublattice. This is a new, purely quantum, phenomenon. Finally the entanglement property between the sublattices ${\cal A}(\{0,1,...,N\})$ and ${\cal A}(\{N+1\})$ is investigated using the PPT criterium. It turns out that, for $q\neq 0,1,{1/2}$ the states are non separable, thus truly entangled, while for $q=0,1,{1/2}$, they are separable.

Abstract:
A property of dynamical correlation functions for nonequilibrium states is discussed. We consider arbitrary dimensional quantum spin systems with local interaction and translationally invariant states with nonvanishing current over them. A correlation function between local charge and local Hamiltonian at different spacetime points is shown to exhibit slow decay.

Abstract:
On one-dimensional two-way infinite quantum lattice system, a property of translationally invariant stationary states with nonvanishing current expectation is investigated. We consider GNS representation with respect to such a state, on which we have a group of space-time translation unitary operators. We show that spectrum of the unitary operators, energy-momentum spectrum with respect to the state, has a singularity at the origin.

Abstract:
Two quantities quantifying uncertainty relations are examined. In J.Math.Phys. 48, 082103 (2007), Busch and Pearson investigated the limitation on joint localizability and joint measurement of position and momentum by introducing overall width and error bar width. In this paper, we show a simple relationship between these quantities for finite-dimensional systems. Our result indicates that if there is a bound on joint localizability, it is possible to obtain a similar bound on joint measurability. For finite-dimensional systems, uncertainty relations for a pair of general projection-valued measures are obtained as by-products.

Computational based cryptography might not guarantee long term security if computational algorithms, computers, and so on are made remarkable progress. Therefore, quantum cryptography with unconditionally security attracts attention. In this paper, we consider security of a two-way quantum key distribution protocol, so called Ping-Pong protocol. As a result, we introduce not only robustness but also a different information disturbance theorem, which denotes a trade-off relationship between information gain for an eavesdropper and error rate, from the related works for an attack model.

Abstract:
We derive an effective 1D theory from the Hamiltonian of the 3D system which consists of a mesoscopic conductor and reservoirs. We assume that the many-body interaction have the same magnitude in the conductor as that in the reservoirs, in contrast to the previous theories which made the ad hoc assumption that the many-body interaction were absent in the reservoirs. We show the following: (i) The effective potentials of impurities and two-body interaction for the 1D modes become weaker as $x$ goes away from the conductor. (ii) On the other hand, the interaction between the 1D and the reservoir modes is important in the reservoir regions, where the reservoir modes excite and attenuate the 1D modes through the interaction. (iii) As a result, the current $\hat I_1$ of the 1D modes is not conserved, whereas the total current $\hat I$ is of course conserved. (iv) For any steady state the total current $\bra I \ket$, its equilibrium fluctuation $\bra \delta I^2 \ket^{eq}$ at low frequency, and non-equilibrium fluctuation $\bra \delta I^2 \ket^{noneq}$ at low frequency, of the original system are independent of $x$, whereas $\bra \delta I^2 \ket^{eq}$ and $\bra \delta I^2 \ket^{noneq}$ at higher frequencies may depend on $x$. (v) Utilizing this property, we can evaluate $\bra I \ket$, $\bra \delta I^2 \ket^{eq}$, and $\bra \delta I^2 \ket^{noneq}$ at low frequency from those of the 1D current $\hat I_1$. (vi) In general, the transmittance $T$ in the Landauer formula should be evaluated from a single-body Hamiltonian which includes a Hartree potential created by the density deformation which is caused by the external bias.

Abstract:
The Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation treats a pair of rank one projection valued measures and imposes a restriction on their probability distributions. It gives a nontrivial bound for summation of their maximum values. We give a generalization of this bound (weak version of the Landau-Pollak uncertainty relation). Our generalization covers a pair of positive operator valued measures. A nontrivial but slightly weak inequality that can treat an arbitrary number of positive operator valued measures is also presented.

Abstract:
It has been shown that Information-Disturbance theorem can play an important role in security proof of quantum cryptography. The theorem is by itself interesting since it can be regarded as an information theoretic version of uncertainty principle. It, however, has been able to treat restricted situations. In this paper, the restriction on the source is abandoned, and a general information-disturbance theorem is obtained. The theorem relates information gain by Eve with information gain by Bob.