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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 496453 matches for " H. M. Christen "
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Recent advances in pulsed-laser deposition of complex-oxides
H. M. Christen,G. Eres
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/20/26/264005
Abstract: Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is one of the most promising techniques for the formation of complex-oxide heterostructures, superlattices, and well-controlled interfaces. The first part of this paper presents a review of several useful modifications of the process, including methods inspired by combinatorial approaches. We then discuss detailed growth kinetics results, which illustrate that 'true' layer-by-layer (LBL) growth can only be approached, but not fully met, even though many characterization techniques reveal interfaces with unexpected sharpness. Time-resolved surface x-ray diffraction measurements show that crystallization and the majority of interlayer mass transport occur on time scales that are comparable to those of the plume/substrate interaction, providing direct experimental evidence that a growth regime exists in which non-thermal processes dominate PLD. This understanding shows how kinetic growth manipulation can bring PLD closer to ideal LBL than any other growth method available today.
Unusual Hall Effect in Superconducting MgB$_2$ Films: Analogy to High-T$_c$ Cuprates
R. Jin,M. Paranthaman,H. Y. Zhai,H. M. Christen,D. K. Christen,D. Mandrus
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We have investigated the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the Hall coefficient of two well-characterized superconducting MgB$_2$ films (T$_{c0}$=38.0 K) in both the normal and superconducting states. Our results show that the normal-state Hall coefficient R$_H$ is positive and increases with decreasing temperature, independent of the applied magnetic field. Below T$_c$(H), R$_H$ decreases rapidly with temperature and changes sign before it reaches zero. The position and magnitude at which R$_H$ shows a minimum depends on the applied field. Quantitative analysis of our data indicates that the Hall response of MgB$_2$ behaves very similarly to that of high-T$_c$ cuprates: R$_H$ $\propto$ T and cot$\theta_H$ $\propto$ T$^2$ in the normal state, and a sign reversal of R$_H$ in the mixed state. This suggests that the B-B layers in MgB$_2$, like the Cu-O planes in high-T$_c$ cuprates, play an important role in the electrical transport properties.
Parameter-free extraction of Thin-Film Dielectric Constants from Scanning Near Field Microwave Microscope Measurements
Shuogang Huang,H. M. Christen,M. E. Reeves
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We present a method for extracting high-spatial resolution dielectric constant data at microwave frequencies. A scanning near field microwave microscope probes a sample and acquires data in the form of the frequency and quality factor shifts of a resonant cavity coupled to the sample. The approach reported here is to calculate the electromagnetic fields by the finite element method in both static and time-dependent modes. Cavity perturbation theory connects the measured frequency shifts to changes in the computed energy stored in the electromagnetic field. In this way, the complex permittivity of the sample is found. Of particular interest are thin-film materials, for which a method is reported here to determine the dielectric constant without the need to use any fitting parameters.
Validating numerical simulations of snow avalanches using dendrochronology: the Cerro Ventana event in Northern Patagonia, Argentina
A. Casteller,M. Christen,R. Villalba,H. Martínez
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2008,
Abstract: The damage caused by snow avalanches to property and human lives is underestimated in many regions around the world, especially where this natural hazard remains poorly documented. One such region is the Argentinean Andes, where numerous settlements are threatened almost every winter by large snow avalanches. On 1 September 2002, the largest tragedy in the history of Argentinean mountaineering took place at Cerro Ventana, Northern Patagonia: nine persons were killed and seven others injured by a snow avalanche. In this paper, we combine both numerical modeling and dendrochronological investigations to reconstruct this event. Using information released by local governmental authorities and compiled in the field, the avalanche event was numerically simulated using the avalanche dynamics programs AVAL-1D and RAMMS. Avalanche characteristics, such as extent and date were determined using dendrochronological techniques. Model simulation results were compared with documentary and tree-ring evidences for the 2002 event. Our results show a good agreement between the simulated projection of the avalanche and its reconstructed extent using tree-ring records. Differences between the observed and the simulated avalanche, principally related to the snow height deposition in the run-out zone, are mostly attributed to the low resolution of the digital elevation model used to represent the valley topography. The main contributions of this study are (1) to provide the first calibration of numerical avalanche models for the Patagonian Andes and (2) to highlight the potential of Nothofagus pumilio tree-ring records to reconstruct past snow-avalanche events in time and space. Future research should focus on testing this combined approach in other forested regions of the Andes.
A continuous compositional-spread technique based on pulsed-laser deposition and applied to the growth of epitaxial films
H. M. Christen,S. D. Silliman,K. S. Harshavardhan
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1374597
Abstract: A novel continuous-compositional spread technique based on the non-uniformity of the deposition rate typically observed in Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is introduced. The approach uses the spatial variations in the deposition-rate naturally occurring in PLD; therefore, there is no need for the masks typically used in combinatorial techniques. Consequently, combinatorial materials synthesis can be carried out under optimized film growth conditions (e.g. at high temperature). Additionally, lifting the need for post-annealing renders this method applicable to heat-sensitive materials and substrates (e.g. films of transparent oxides on polymer substrates). Composition determination across the sample and mapping of physical properties onto the ternary phase diagram is achieved via a simple algorithm using the parameters that describe the deposition-rate profiles. Results are shown for the high-temperature growth of crystalline perovskites (including (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and the formation of a metastable alloy between SrRuO3 and SrSnO3) and the room-temperature growth of transparent conducting oxides.
Degradation of superconducting properties in MgB2 films by exposure to water
H Y Zhai,H M Christen,L Zhang,M Paranthaman,P H Fleming,D H Lowndes
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: The effect of water exposure on MgB2 is studied by submerging an 800 nm thick MgB2 film into deionized water at room temperature for 1 hour, 4 hours, 10 hours, and 15 hours, and by analyzing the resulting material using scanning electron microscopy and resistance vs. temperature measurements. It is clearly observed that Tconset of these films (obtained by an ex-situ reaction of a e-beam evaporated boron layer) remains unchanged throughout this process, indicating that at least a portion of the sample retains its original bulk-like properties. The data is consistent with an interpretation in which a portion of the exposed film - likely the region closest to the substrate - becomes superconducting only at about 25 K. It is possible that this low-Tc region already exists in the as-prepared film, and we observe that its Tc coincides with that of MgB2 films obtained by annealing precursor films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Therefore the data presented here not only illustrate the degradation of MgB2 in water but also shed light onto the differences and similarities between films obtained via different routes.
Growth mechanism of superconducting MgB2 films prepared by various methods
H. Y. Zhai,H. M. Christen,L. Zhang,M. Paranthaman,C. Cantoni,B. C. Sales,P. H. Fleming,D. K. Christen,D. H. Lowndes
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1557/JMR.2001.0375
Abstract: The growth mechanisms of MgB2 films obtained by different methods on various substrates are compared via a detailed cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. The analyzed films include (a) samples obtained by an ex-situ post-anneal at 900 degree of e-beam evaporated boron in the presence of an Mg vapor (exhibiting bulk-like Tc0 about 38.8 K), (b) samples obtained by the same ex-situ 900 degree anneal of pulsed laser deposition (PLD)-grown Mg+B precursors (exhibiting Tc0 ~ 25 K), and (c) films obtained by a low-temperature (600 - 630 degree) in-situ anneal of PLD-grown Mg+B precursors (with Tc0 about 24 K). A significant oxygen contamination was also present in films obtained from a PLD-grown precursors. On the other hand, it is clearly observed that the films obtained by the high-temperature reaction of e-beam evaporated B with Mg vapor are formed by the nucleation of independent MgB2 grains at the film surface, indicating that this approach may not be suitable to obtain smooth and (possibly) epitaxial films.
Stress-induced R-MA-MC-T symmetry changes in BiFeO3 films
J. H. Nam,H. S. Kim,A. J. Hatt,N. A. Spaldin,H. M. Christen
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.144107
Abstract: The recent discovery of a stress-induced structural phase transition in the single-component perovskite BiFeO3 has revived interest in this lead-free ferroelectric. The coexistence of different phases may lead to large piezoelectric coefficients, a property typically associated with complex solid solutions of lead-based perovskites. Here we report combined experimental and computational results showing that the stress-induced phase transitions in BiFeO3 follow the path of rhombohedral(R)-to-monoclinic(MA)-to-monoclinic(MC)-to-tetragonal(T), where both MC and T show highly enhanced c/a ratios. This R-MA-MC-T sequence is otherwise observed only near morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) in lead-based perovskites (i.e. near a compositionally induced phase instability), where it is controlled by electric field, temperature, or composition. Our results represent the first time that this evolution has been induced in a single component system using strain alone, and show that substrate- imposed symmetry lowering results in a similar phase instability as the proximity to a MPB in solid solutions.
Superconducting magnesium diboride films with Tc \approx 24K grown by pulsed laser deposition with in-situ anneal
H. M. Christen,H. Y. Zhai,C. Cantoni,M. Paranthaman,B. C. Sales,C. Rouleau,D. P. Norton,D. K. Christen,D. H. Lowndes,.
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0921-4534(01)00398-7
Abstract: Thin superconducting films of magnesium diboride (MgB2) with Tc \approx 24K were prepared on various oxide substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) followed by an in-situ anneal. A systematic study of the influence of various in-situ annealing parameters shows an optimum temperature of about 600C in a background of 0.7 atm. of Ar/4%H2 for layers consisting of a mixture of magnesium and boron. Contrary to ex-situ approaches (e.g. reacting boron films with magnesium vapor at 900C), these films are processed below the decomposition temperature of MgB2. This may prove enabling in the formation of multilayers, junctions, and epitaxial films in future work. Issues related to the improvement of these films and to the possible in-situ growth of MgB2 at elevated temperature are discussed.
Superconducting magnesium diboride films on Silicon with Tc0 about 24K grown via vacuum annealing from stoichiometric precursors
H. Y. Zhai,H. M. Christen,L. Zhang,C. Cantoni,M. Paranthaman,B. C. Sales,D. K. Christen,D. H. Lowndes
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1410360
Abstract: Superconducting magnesium diboride films with Tc0 ~ 24 K and sharp transition \~ 1 K were successfully prepared on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition from a stoichiometric MgB2 target. Contrary to previous reports, anneals at 630 degree and a background of 2x10^(-4) torr Ar/4%H2 were performed without the requirement of Mg vapor or an Mg cap layer. This integration of superconducting MgB2 films on silicon may thus prove enabling in superconductor-semiconductor device applications. Images of surface morphology and cross-section profiles by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that the films have a uniform surface morphology and thickness. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals these films were contaminated with oxygen, originating either from the growth environment or from sample exposure to air. The oxygen contamination may account for the low Tc for those in-situ annealed films, while the use of Si as the substrate does not result in a decrease in Tc as compared to other substrates.
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