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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 149754 matches for " H. Genda "
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Warm Debris Disks Produced by Giant Impacts During Terrestrial Planet Formation
H. Genda,H. Kobayashi,E. Kokubo
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/136
Abstract: In our solar system, Mars-sized protoplanets frequently collided with each other during the last stage of terrestrial planet formation called the giant impact stage. Giant impacts eject a large amount of material from the colliding protoplanets into the terrestrial planet region, which may form debris disks with observable infrared excesses. Indeed, tens of warm debris disks around young solar-type stars have been observed. Here, we quantitatively estimate the total mass of ejected materials during the giant impact stages. We found that $\sim$0.4 times the Earth's mass is ejected in total throughout the giant impact stage. Ejected materials are ground down by collisional cascade until micron-sized grains are blown out by radiation pressure. The depletion timescale of these ejected materials is determined primarily by the mass of the largest body among them. We conducted high-resolution simulations of giant impacts to accurately obtain the mass of the largest ejected body. We then calculated the evolution of the debris disks produced by a series of giant impacts and depleted by collisional cascades to obtain the infrared excess evolution of the debris disks. We found that the infrared excess is almost always higher than the stellar infrared flux throughout the giant impact stage ($\sim$100 Myr) and is sometimes $\sim$10 times higher immediately after a giant impact. Therefore, giant impact stages would explain the infrared excess from most observed warm debris disks. The observed fraction of stars with warm debris disks indicates that the formation probability of our solar system-like terrestrial planets is approximately 10%.
Merging Criteria for Giant Impacts of Protoplanets
H. Genda,E. Kokubo,S. Ida
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/137
Abstract: At the final stage of terrestrial planet formation, known as the giant impact stage, a few tens of Mars-sized protoplanets collide with one another to form terrestrial planets. Almost all previous studies on the orbital and accretional evolution of protoplanets in this stage have been based on the assumption of perfect accretion, where two colliding protoplanets always merge. However, recent impact simulations have shown that collisions among protoplanets are not always merging events, that is, two colliding protoplanets sometimes move apart after the collision (hit-and-run collision). As a first step towards studying the effects of such imperfect accretion of protoplanets on terrestrial planet formation, we investigated the merging criteria for collisions of rocky protoplanets. Using the smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) method, we performed more than 1000 simulations of giant impacts with various parameter sets, such as the mass ratio of protoplanets, $\gamma$, the total mass of two protoplanets, $M_{\rm T}$, the impact angle, $\theta$, and the impact velocity, $v_{\rm imp}$. We investigated the critical impact velocity, $v_{\rm cr}$, at the transition between merging and hit-and-run collisions. We found that the normalized critical impact velocity, $v_{\rm cr}/v_{\rm esc}$, depends on $\gamma$ and $\theta$, but does not depend on $M_{\rm T}$, where $v_{\rm esc}$ is the two-body escape velocity. We derived a simple formula for $v_{\rm cr}/v_{\rm esc}$ as a function of $\gamma$ and $\theta$, and applied it to the giant impact events obtained by \textit{N}-body calculations in the previous studies. We found that 40% of these events should not be merging events.
Resolution Dependence of Disruptive Collisions between Planetesimals in the Gravity Regime
H. Genda,T. Fujita,H. Kobayashi,H. Tanaka,Y. Abe
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.029
Abstract: Collisions are a fundamental process in planet formation. If colliding objects simply merge, a planetary object can grow. However, if the collision is disruptive, planetary growth is prevented. Therefore, the impact conditions under which collisions are destructive are important in understanding planet formation. So far, the critical specific impact energy for a disruptive collision Q_D^* has been investigated for various types of collisions between objects ranging in scale from centimeters to thousands of kilometers. Although the values of Q_D^* have been calculated numerically while taking into consideration various physical properties such as self-gravity, material strength, and porosity, the dependence of Q_D^* on numerical resolution has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, we performed numerical simulations of collisions between planetesimals at various numerical resolutions (from 2 x 10^4 to 5 x 10^6 SPH particles) and investigated the resulting variation in Q_D^*. The value of Q_D^* is shown to decrease as the number of SPH particles increases, and the difference between the Q_D^* values for the lowest and highest investigated resolutions is approximately a factor of two. Although the results for 5 x 10^6 SPH particles do not fully converge, higher-resolution simulations near the impact site show that the value of Q_D^* for the case with 5 x 10^6 SPH particles is close to the expected converged value. Although Q_D^* depends on impact parameters and material parameters, our results indicate that at least 5 x 10^6 SPH particles are required for numerical simulations in disruptive collisions to obtain the value of Q_D^* within 20% error.
Rapid Water Loss can Extend the Lifetime of the Planetary Habitability
T. Kodama,H. Genda,Y. Abe,K. J. Zahnle
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/165
Abstract: Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than had it stayed an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface M_ml consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere M_cv that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-size aqua planets with initial oceans < 10 % of the Earth's can evolve into land planets if M_cv = 3 m in precipitable water and M_ml = 5 % of the Earth's ocean mass. Such planets can keep liquid water on their surface for another 2 Gyrs. The initial amount of water and M_cv are shown to be important dividing parameters of the planetary evolution path. Our results indicate that massive hydrogen escape could give a fresh start as another kind of habitable planet rather than the end of its habitability.
Magnetic field induced enhancement of spin-order peak intensity in La(1.875)Ba(0.125)CuO(4)
Jinsheng Wen,Zhijun Xu,Guangyong Xu,J. M. Tranquada,Genda Gu,S. Chang,H. J. Kang
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.212506
Abstract: We report on neutron-scattering results on the impact of a magnetic field on stripe order in the cuprate La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$. It is found that a 7 T magnetic field applied along the {\it c} axis causes a small but finite enhancement of the spin-order peak intensity and has no observable effect on the peak width. Inelastic neutron-scattering measurements indicate that the low-energy magnetic excitations are not affected by the field, within experimental error. In particular, the small energy gap that was recently reported is still present at low temperature in the applied field. In addition, we find that the spin-correlation length along the antiferromagnetic stripes is greater than that perpendicular to them.
Formation of Terrestrial Planets from Protoplanets under a Realistic Accretion Condition
Eiichiro Kokubo,Hidenori Genda
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/714/1/L21
Abstract: The final stage of terrestrial planet formation is known as the giant impact stage where protoplanets collide with one another to form planets. So far this stage has been mainly investigated by N-body simulations with an assumption of perfect accretion in which all collisions lead to accretion. However, this assumption breaks for collisions with high velocity and/or a large impact parameter. We derive an accretion condition for protoplanet collisions in terms of impact velocity and angle and masses of colliding bodies, from the results of numerical collision experiments. For the first time, we adopt this realistic accretion condition in N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation from protoplanets. We compare the results with those with perfect accretion and show how the accretion condition affects terrestrial planet formation. We find that in the realistic accretion model, about half of collisions do not lead to accretion. However, the final number, mass, orbital elements, and even growth timescale of planets are barely affected by the accretion condition. For the standard protoplanetary disk model, typically two Earth-sized planets form in the terrestrial planet region over about 100 M years in both realistic and perfect accretion models. We also find that for the realistic accretion model, the spin angular velocity is about 30% smaller than that for the perfect accretion model that is as large as the critical spin angular velocity for rotational instability. The spin angular velocity and obliquity obey Gaussian and isotropic distributions, respectively, independently of the accretion condition.
Giant impacts in the Saturnian System: a possible origin of diversity in the inner mid-sized satellites
Yasuhito Sekine,Hidenori Genda
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.pss.2011.05.015
Abstract: It is widely accepted that Titan and the mid-sized regular satellites around Saturn were formed in the circum-Saturn disk. Thus, if these mid-sized satellites were simply accreted by collisions of similar ice-rock satellitesimals in the disk, the observed wide diversity in density (i.e., the rock fraction) of the Saturnian mid-sized satellites is enigmatic. A recent circumplanetary disk model suggests satellite growth in an actively supplied circumplanetary disk, in which Titan-sized satellites migrate inward by interaction with the gas and are eventually lost to the gas planet. Here we report numerical simulations of giant impacts between Titan-sized migrating satellites and smaller satellites in the inner region of the Saturnian disk. Our results suggest that in a giant impact with impact velocity > 1.4 times the escape velocity and impact angle of ~45 degree, a smaller satellite is destroyed, forming multiple mid-sized satellites with a very wide diversity in satellite density (the rock fraction = 0-92 wt%). Our results of the relationship between the mass and rock fraction of the satellites resulting from giant impacts reproduce the observations of the Saturnian mid-sized satellites. Giant impacts also lead to internal melting of the formed mid-sized satellites, which would initiate strong tidal dissipation and geological activity, such as those observed on Enceladus today and Tethys in the past. Our findings also imply that giant impacts might have affected the fundamental physical property of the Saturnian mid-sized satellites as well as those of the terrestrial planets in the solar system and beyond.
Origin of the Ocean on the Earth: Early Evolution of Water D/H in a Hydrogen-rich Atmosphere
Hidenori Genda,Masahiro Ikoma
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.09.007
Abstract: The origin of the Earth's ocean has been discussed on the basis of deuterium/hydrogen ratios (D/H) of several sources of water in the solar system. The average D/H of carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) is known to be close to the current D/H of the Earth's ocean, while those of comets and the solar nebula are larger by about a factor of two and smaller by about a factor of seven, respectively, than that of the Earth's ocean. Thus, the main source of the Earth's ocean has been thought to be CC's or adequate mixing of comets and the solar nebula. However, those conclusions are correct only if D/H of water on the Earth has remained unchanged for the past 4.5 Gyr. In this paper, we investigate evolution of D/H in the ocean in the case that the early Earth had a hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the existence of which is predicted by recent theories of planet formation no matter whether the nebula remains or not. Then we show that D/H in the ocean increases by a factor of 2-9, which is caused by the mass fractionation during atmospheric hydrogen loss, followed by deuterium exchange between hydrogen gas and water vapor during ocean formation. This result suggests that the apparent similarity in D/H of water between CC's and the current Earth's ocean does not necessarily support the CC's origin of water and that the apparent discrepancy in D/H is not a good reason for excluding the nebular origin of water.
Scattering from incipient stripe order in the high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d
Eduardo H. da Silva Neto,Colin V. Parker,Pegor Aynajian,Aakash Pushp,Jinsheng Wen,Zhijun Xu,Genda Gu,Ali Yazdani
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.104521
Abstract: Recently we have used spectroscopic mapping with the scanning tunneling microscope to probe modulations of the electronic density of states in single crystals of the high temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d (Bi-2212) as a function of temperature [C. V. Parker et al., Nature (London) 468, 677 (2010)]. These measurements showed Cu-O bond-oriented modulations that form below the pseudogap temperature with a temperature-dependent energy dispersion displaying different behaviors in the superconducting and pseudogap states. Here we demonstrate that quasiparticle scattering off impurities does not capture the experimentally observed energy- and temperature-dependence of these modulations. Instead, a model of scattering of quasiparticles from short-range stripe order, with periodicity near four lattice constants (4a), reproduces the experimentally observed energy dispersion of the bond-oriented modulations and its temperature dependence across the superconducting critical temperature, Tc. The present study confirms the existence of short-range stripe order in Bi-2212.
Phase Separation and Chemical Inhomogeneity in the Iron Chalcogenide Superconductor Fe1+yTexSe1-x
Hefei Hu,J. M. Zuo,J. S. Wen,Z. J. Xu,Z. W. Lin,Q. Li,Genda Gu,W. K. Park,L. H. Greene
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/13/5/053031
Abstract: We report investigation on Fe1+yTexSe1-x single crystals by using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Both nonsuperconducting samples with excess iron and superconducting samples demonstrate nanoscale phase separation and chemical inhomogeneity of Te/Se content, which we attribute to a miscibility gap. The line scan EELS technique indicates ~20% or less fluctuation of Te concentration from the nominal compositions.
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