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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 244853 matches for " H. -T. Janka "
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Gravitational waves from relativistic neutron star mergers with nonzero-temperature equations of state
R. Oechslin,H. -T. Janka
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.121102
Abstract: We analyze the gravitational wave (GW) emission from our recently published set of relativistic neutron star (NS) merger simulations and determine characteristic signal features that allow one to link GW measurements to the properties of the merging binary stars. We find that the distinct peak in the GW energy spectrum that is associated with the formation of a hypermassive merger remnant has a frequency that depends strongly on the properties of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) and on the total mass of the binary system, whereas the mass ratio and the NS spins have a weak influence. If the total mass can be determined from the inspiral chirp signal, the peak frequency of the postmerger signal is a sensitive indicator of the EoS.
Nucleosynthesis-relevant conditions in neutrino-driven supernova outflows. II. The reverse shock in two-dimensional simulations
A. Arcones,H. -T. Janka
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015530
Abstract: After the initiation of the explosion of core-collapse supernovae, neutrinos emitted from the nascent neutron star drive a supersonic baryonic outflow. This neutrino-driven wind interacts with the more slowly moving, earlier supernova ejecta forming a wind termination shock (or reverse shock), which changes the local wind conditions and their evolution. Important nucleosynthesis processes (alpha-process, charged-particle reactions, r-process, and vp-process) occur or might occur in this environment. The nucleosynthesis depends on the long-time evolution of density, temperature, and expansion velocity. Here we present two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with an approximate description of neutrino-transport effects, which for the first time follow the post-bounce accretion, onset of the explosion, wind formation, and the wind expansion through the collision with the preceding supernova ejecta. Our results demonstrate that the anisotropic ejecta distribution has a great impact on the position of the reverse shock, the wind profile, and the long-time evolution. This suggests that hydrodynamic instabilities after core bounce and the consequential asymmetries may have important effects on the nucleosynthesis-relevant conditions in the neutrino-heated baryonic mass flow from proto-neutron stars.
Merging Neutron Stars and Black Holes as Sources of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Heavy Elements
H. -Th. Janka,M. Ruffert,T. Eberl
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Hydrodynamic simulations were performed of the dynamical phase of the merging of binary neutron stars (NS-NS) and of neutron star black hole binaries (NS-BH), using the physical nuclear equation of state of Lattimer and Swesty (1991) and taking into account the emission of gravitational waves and neutrinos.
No Pulsar Kicks from Deformed Neutrinospheres
H. -T. Janka,G. G. Raffelt
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.59.023005
Abstract: In a supernova core, magnetic fields cause a directional variation of the neutrino refractive index so that resonant flavor oscillations would lead to a deformation of the "neutrinosphere" for, say, tau neutrinos. The associated anisotropic neutrino emission was proposed as a possible origin of the observed pulsar proper motions. We argue that this effect was vastly overestimated because the variation of the temperature over the deformed neutrinosphere is not an adequate measure for the anisotropy of neutrino emission. The neutrino flux is generated inside the neutron star core and is transported through the atmosphere at a constant luminosity, forcing the temperature gradient in the atmosphere to adjust to the inflow of energy from below. Therefore, no emission anisotropy is caused by a deformation of the neutrinosphere to lowest order. An estimate of the higher-order corrections must take into account the modified atmospheric temperature profile in response to the deformation of the neutrinosphere and the corresponding feedback on the core. We go through this exercise in the framework of a simplified model which can be solved analytically.
Systematics of dynamical mass ejection, nucleosynthesis, and radioactively powered electromagnetic signals from neutron-star mergers
A. Bauswein,S. Goriely,H. -T. Janka
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/773/1/78
Abstract: We investigate systematically the dynamical mass ejection, r-process nucleosynthesis, and properties of electromagnetic counterparts of neutron-star (NS) mergers in dependence on the uncertain properties of the nuclear equation of state (EoS) by employing 40 representative, microphysical high-density EoSs in relativistic, hydrodynamical simulations. The crucial parameter determining the ejecta mass is the radius R_1.35 of a 1.35 M_sun NS. NSs with smaller R_1.35 ("soft" EoS) eject systematically higher masses. These range from ~10^-3 M_sun to ~10^-2 M_sun for 1.35-1.35 M_sun binaries and from ~5*10^-3 M_sun to ~2*10^-2 M_sun for 1.2-1.5 M_sun systems (with kinetic energies between ~5*10^49 erg and 10^51 erg). Correspondingly, the bolometric peak luminosities of the optical transients of symmetric (asymmetric) mergers vary between 3*10^41 erg/s and 14*10^41 erg/s (9*10^41 erg/s and 14.5*10^41 erg/s) on timescales between ~2 h and ~12 h. If these signals with absolute bolometric magnitudes from -15.0 to -16.7 are measured, the tight correlation of their properties with those of the merging NSs might provide valuable constraints on the high-density EoS. The r-process nucleosynthesis exhibits a remarkable robustness independent of the EoS, producing a nearly solar abundance pattern above mass number 130. By the r-process content of the Galaxy and the average production per event the Galactic merger rate is limited to 4*10^-5/yr (4*10^-4/yr) for a soft (stiff) NS EoS, if NS mergers are the main source of heavy r-nuclei. The production ratio of radioactive 232Th to 238U attains a stable value of 1.64-1.67, which does not exclude NS mergers as potential sources of heavy r-material in the most metal-poor stars.
Inferring neutron-star properties from gravitational-wave signals of binary mergers
A. Bauswein,N. Stergioulas,H. -T. Janka
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The oscillations of a merger remnant forming after the coalescence of two neutron stars are very characteristic for the high-density equation of state. The dominant oscillation frequency occurs as a pronounced peak in the kHz range of the gravitational-wave spectrum. We describe how the dominant oscillation frequency of the remnant can be employed to infer the radii of non-rotating neutron stars.
Revealing the high-density equation of state through binary neutron star mergers
A. Bauswein,N. Stergioulas,H. -T. Janka
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.90.023002
Abstract: We present a novel method for revealing the equation of state of high-density neutron star matter through gravitational waves emitted during the postmerger phase of a binary neutron star system. The method relies on a small number of detections of the peak frequency in the postmerger phase for binaries of different (relatively low) masses, in the most likely range of expected detections. From such observations, one can construct the derivative of the peak frequency versus the binary mass, in this mass range. Through a detailed study of binary neutron star mergers for a large sample of equations of state, we show that one can extrapolate the above information to the highest possible mass (the threshold mass for black hole formation in a binary neutron star merger). In turn, this allows for an empirical determination of the maximum mass of cold, nonrotating neutron stars to within 0.1 M_sun, while the corresponding radius is determined to within a few percent. Combining this with the determination of the radius of cold, nonrotating neutron stars of 1.6 M_sun (to within a few percent, as was demonstrated in Bauswein et al., PRD, 86, 063001, 2012), allows for a clear distinction of a particular candidate equation of state among a large set of other candidates. Our method is particularly appealing because it reveals simultaneously the moderate and very high-density parts of the equation of state, enabling the distinction of mass-radius relations even if they are similar at typical neutron star masses. Furthermore, our method also allows to deduce the maximum central energy density and maximum central rest-mass density of cold, nonrotating neutron stars with an accuracy of a few per cent.
Prompt merger collapse and the maximum mass of neutron stars
A. Bauswein,T. W. Baumgarte,H. -T. Janka
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.131101
Abstract: We perform hydrodynamical simulations of neutron-star mergers for a large sample of temperature-dependent, nuclear equations of state, and determine the threshold mass above which the merger remnant promptly collapses to form a black hole. We find that, depending on the equation of state, the threshold mass is larger than the maximum mass of a non-rotating star in isolation by between 30 and 70 per cent. Our simulations also show that the ratio between the threshold mass and maximum mass is tightly correlated with the compactness of the non-rotating maximum-mass configuration. We speculate on how this relation can be used to derive constraints on neutron-star properties from future observations.
Non-spherical Core Collapse Supernovae I. Neutrino-Driven Convection, Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities, and the Formation and Propagation of Metal Clumps
K. Kifonidis,T. Plewa,H. -Th. Janka,E. Mueller
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030863
Abstract: Two-dimensional simulations of a Type II and a Type Ib-like supernova explosion are presented that encompass shock revival by neutrino heating, neutrino-driven convection, explosive nucleosynthesis, the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and the propagation of newly formed metal clumps through the exploding star. In both cases we find very high Ni56 velocities of 17000 km/s shortly after shock-revival, and a complete fragmentation of the progenitor's metal core within the first few minutes after core bounce, due to the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the Si/O and (C+O)/He composition interfaces. This leads to the formation of high-velocity, metal-rich clumps which eventually decouple from the flow and move ballistically through the ejecta. Maximum final metal velocities of 3500-5500 km/s and 1200 km/s are obtained for the Type Ib model and the Type II model, respectively. The low maximum metal velocities in the Type II model, which are significantly smaller than those observed in SN 1987A, are due to the massive hydrogen envelope of the progenitor. The envelope forces the supernova shock to decelerate strongly, leaving behind a reverse shock below the He/H interface, which interacts with the clumps and slows them down significantly. This reverse shock is absent in the Type Ib-like model. The latter is in fairly good agreement with observations of Type Ib supernovae. In addition, in this case the pattern of clump formation in the ejecta is correlated with the convective pattern prevailing during the shock-revival phase. This might be used to deduce observational constraints for the dynamics during this early phase of the evolution, and the role of neutrino heating in initiating the explosion.
Nucleon Spin Fluctuations and the Supernova Emission of Neutrinos and Axions
H. -T. Janka,W. Keil,G. Raffelt,D. Seckel
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.76.2621
Abstract: In the hot and dense medium of a supernova (SN) core, the nucleon spins fluctuate so fast that the axial-vector neutrino opacity and the axion emissivity are expected to be significantly modified. Axions with $m_a\alt10^{-2}\,{\rm eV}$ are not excluded by SN~1987A. A substantial transfer of energy in neutrino-nucleon ($\nu N$) collisions is enabled which may alter the spectra of SN neutrinos relative to calculations where energy-conserving $\nu N$ collisions had been assumed near the neutrinosphere.
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