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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 149814 matches for " H?fner "
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The early Kraepelin´s dichotomy of schizophrenia and affective disorder - Evidence of separate diseases?a
Hfner,H.;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2010,
Abstract: background and objectives: testing kraepelin′s dichotomy model, we studied the separability of schizophrenia and affective disorders by their symptoms and course. methods: to this end symptoms and illness course were assessed retrospectively in individually matched untreated probands with schizophrenia and depression (n=130 each) from first admission back to illness onset in comparison with 130 "healthy" controls. in a second study these same variables were studied prospectively in 107 patients with schizophrenia over a homogenised follow-up of 134 months (11.2 years). the actual mean length of the follow-up period was 12.3 years. results: the symptom most frequently marking the onset of both schizophrenia and depression was depressive mood. both disorders exhibited the same prodromal core syndrome. it was not until the emergence of positive symptoms that the disorders became separable by the international classification systems. depression remained the most frequent syndrome over the course of schizophrenia. conclusions: obviously, depression does not represent comorbidity, but an integral part of psychosis. a dimensional disease model based on (successively emerging) hierarchical symptom patterns of the human brain with increasing brain dysfunction in the course of schizophrenia and several neuro-degenerative disorders, not unknown to the later kraepelin, is offered as an explanation.
The early Kraepelin′s dichotomy of schizophrenia and affective disorder - Evidence of separate diseases?a
H. Hfner
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Testing Kraepelin′s dichotomy model, we studied the separability of schizophrenia and affective disorders by their symptoms and course. Methods: To this end symptoms and illness course were assessed retrospectively in individually matched untreated probands with schizophrenia and depression (n=130 each) from first admission back to illness onset in comparison with 130 "healthy" controls. In a second study these same variables were studied prospectively in 107 patients with schizophrenia over a homogenised follow-up of 134 months (11.2 years). The actual mean length of the follow-up period was 12.3 years. Results: The symptom most frequently marking the onset of both schizophrenia and depression was depressive mood. Both disorders exhibited the same prodromal core syndrome. It was not until the emergence of positive symptoms that the disorders became separable by the international classification systems. Depression remained the most frequent syndrome over the course of schizophrenia. Conclusions: Obviously, depression does not represent comorbidity, but an integral part of psychosis. A dimensional disease model based on (successively emerging) hierarchical symptom patterns of the human brain with increasing brain dysfunction in the course of schizophrenia and several neuro-degenerative disorders, not unknown to the later Kraepelin, is offered as an explanation.
Psychosis and cannabis
Hfner, Heinz;
Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-60832005000200001
Abstract: alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. the following four issues will be dealt with: 1) the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of thc, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2) can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3) are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4) what consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? results from recent literature and the abc schizophrenia study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. in most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. there is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.
Schizophrenia: do men and women suffer from the same disease?
Hfner, Heinz;
Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-60832002000600002
Abstract: this article reviews the literature on normal brain development and behavioural development in men and women as well as on aetiological risk factors for schizophrenia, such as pre-, peri- and postnatal complications. the male-female comparisons of age and type of onset, symptomatology, course and outcome were based on a population-based sample of 232 first illness episodes - the abc schizophrenia study sample. the probands were assessed using the iraos interview and other instruments retrospectively at first admission and prospectively at six cross sections over five years after first contact. a representative subsample of 130 first admissions or 115 first illness episodes were compared with 130 controls, matched by age, sex and area of residence. women, 3 to 4 years older than men at illness onset, showed a second peak of onsets in age group 45 to 50 years. after animal experiments and a controlled clinical study this finding was explained by a protective effect of oestrogen persisting until menopause. the underlying neurobiological mechanism consisted in a sensitivity reducing effect of oestrogen on d2 receptors in the brain. the effect of oestrogen, meanwhile confirmed in randomised control trials, also includes genomic effects as well as interactions with free-radical detoxifying systems, thus demonstrating the neuroprotective capabilities of oestrogen. postmenopausal schizophrenia was more frequent and more severe in women. men fell ill more frequently and more severely at young age and less frequently and more mildly later in life. illness course, too, was more unfavourable in postmenopausal women than in their male peers. the protective effect of oestrogen in women depended on the degree of their predisposition to the illness: the higher the familial load for schizophrenia, the weaker the protection by oestrogen. the more favourable illness course in premenopausal women resulted from their higher level of social development at illness onset - determined by th
Endoskopie-Bilder-Quiz - Aufl sung aus 4/2004
Hfner M
Journal für Gastroenterologische und Hepatologische Erkrankungen , 2005,
Abstract:
Endoskopie-Bilder-Quiz: Melanom
Hfner M
Journal für Gastroenterologische und Hepatologische Erkrankungen , 2004,
Abstract:
Endoskopie-Bilder-Quiz: Tubulovill ses Adenom
Hfner M
Journal für Gastroenterologische und Hepatologische Erkrankungen , 2004,
Abstract:
The Concept of Schizophrenia: From Unity to Diversity
Heinz Hfner
Advances in Psychiatry , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/929434
Abstract: After over 100 years of research without clarifying the aetiology of schizophrenia, a look at the current state of knowledge in epidemiology, genetics, precursors, psychopathology, and outcome seems worthwhile. The disease concept, created by Kraepelin and modified by Bleuler, has a varied history. Today, schizophrenia is considered a polygenic disorder with onset in early adulthood, characterized by irregular psychotic episodes and functional impairment, but incident cases occur at all ages with marked differences in symptoms and social outcome. Men’s and women’s lifetime risk is nearly the same. At young age, women fall ill a few years later and less severely than men, men more rarely and less severely later in life. The underlying protective effect of oestrogen is antagonized by genetic load. The illness course is heterogeneous and depressive mood the most frequent symptom. Depression and schizophrenia are functionally associated, and affective and nonaffective psychoses do not split neatly. Most social consequences occur at the prodromal stage. Neither schizophrenia as such nor its main symptom dimensions regularly show pronounced deterioration over time. Schizophrenia is neither a residual state of a neurodevelopmental disorder nor a progressing neurodegenerative process. It reflects multifactorial CNS instability, which leads to cognitive deficits and symptom exacerbations. 1. Introduction For more than a century, there has been research into the question of what schizophrenia really is. We have developed an array of fascinating new research techniques and amassed a wealth of detailed knowledge, but we are still lacking a comprehensive answer to that question. Since its early days, the disease concept of schizophrenia [1, 2] has undergone several modifications. The aim of the present article is to describe, in broad sketches, how the understanding of the disorder has evolved to what it is now. Comparable reviews have appeared in great numbers before, for example, by Tsuang and Faraone [3], Weinberger and Harrison [4], Andreasen [5] and the series of articles published on the occasion of the founding and the 10th and the 20th anniversaries of the journal “Schizophrenia Research.” The first of the latter articles, authored by the journal’s cofounder Wyatt together with Alexander, Egan, and Kirch, was entitled “Schizophrenia, Just the Facts” and appeared in 1988 [6]. Further articles carrying that title were to follow [7–11], until the series finally closed with the conclusion “The current construct…is in need of reconceptualization” [12]. The
Starlight and Sandstorms: Mass Loss Mechanisms on the AGB
Susanne Hfner
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: There are strong observational indications that the dense slow winds of cool luminous AGB stars are driven by radiative pressure on dust grains which form in the extended atmospheres resulting from pulsation-induced shocks. For carbon stars, detailed models of outflows driven by amorphous carbon grains show good agreement with observations. Some still existing discrepancies may be due to a simplified treatment of cooling in shocks, drift of the grains relative to the gas, or effects of giant convection cells or dust-induced pattern formation. For stars with C/O < 1, recent models indicate that absorption by silicate dust is probably insuffcient to drive their winds. A possible alternative is scattering by Fe-free silicate grains with radii of a few tenths of a micron. In this scenario one should expect less circumstellar reddening for M- and S-type AGB stars than for C-stars with comparable stellar parameters and mass loss rates.
Wind acceleration in AGB stars: Solid ground and loose ends
Susanne Hfner
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The winds of cool luminous AGB stars are commonly assumed to be driven by radiative acceleration of dust grains which form in the extended atmospheres produced by pulsation-induced shock waves. The dust particles gain momentum by absorption or scattering of stellar photons, and they drag along the surrounding gas particles through collisions, triggering an outflow. This scenario, here referred to as Pulsation-Enhanced Dust-DRiven Outflow (PEDDRO), has passed a range of critical observational tests as models have developed from empirical and qualitative to increasingly self-consistent and quantitative. A reliable theory of mass loss is an essential piece in the bigger picture of stellar and galactic chemical evolution, and central for determining the contribution of AGB stars to the dust budget of galaxies. In this review, I discuss the current understanding of wind acceleration and indicate areas where further efforts by theorists and observers are needed.
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