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Prevalence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Low-Risk Children Using Tuberculin Skin Test: A Study in Shiraz
H Masoumi Asl,A Alborzi,B Pourabbas
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Tuberculin skin test (TST) is a readily available test for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). This study was designed to evaluate LTBI in low-risk children aged 1-15 years.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in Shiraz, Iran, over six months during 2009. Totally, 1289 boys and girls were selected by stratified multistage random sampling from four municipality areas before allocating them to 15 groups. Inclusion criteria included age 1-15 years, documented history of BCG vaccination at birth, Iranian nationality and a healthy state of being. Children with acute febrile diseases, immunosuppression, on medication and immigrants were excluded. We considered a TST ≥ 10 mm of induration as positive.Results: The prevalence of LTBI in 1-15 years old children was 4.5%. The percentage was 3.5% in 1-5 year old, 4.1% in 6-10 year old and 5.7% in 11-15 year old children. The highest rate of infection was 9.8% in 15 year olds and the lowest was 2.2% in 3-year old children. Gender had no effect on LTBI rate. There is no significant difference of LTBI prevalence between four municipality areas.Conclusion: The prevalence of LTBI in this study was lower in comparison with other studies performed in Iran. Positive predictive value of TST decreases in low endemic areas for tuberculosis, especially in low-risk groups; therefore, most positive results are false-positive created by nonspecific reactions and infection with environmental mycobacteria. Hence, there is a need for new diagnostic tools that are easy and cost-effective.
"A Case-Control Study of Determinative Factors on Malaria Morbidity in Minab, Jask and Roodan Counties, in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran, 2001"
H Masoumi Asl,M Motabar,Gh Zamani,D Naserinejad
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2003,
Abstract: A case control study was performed in three districts in Hormozgan province in 2001 to assess how different determinants affect on malaria morbidity. It assume that results will help the decision makers in all levels of national development program. A total of 384 febrile patients with positive peripheral blood smear were selected as case group, and 753 people with negative peripheral blood smear as control group in three districts ( Minab , Jask , Roodan ) in Hormozgan province during second half of the year 2001. Appropriate questionnaire was designed and data entered twicely. Data were analyzed as matched and unmatched case – control using EPI6 and STATA softwares. Some determinants showed strong and significant relationship with malaria morbidity, including ; illiteracy (OR = 0.59), lack of health house and surrounding as a satellite village (OR = 2.83), far away from health facilities (OR = 1.43), not accessibility to school (OR = 1.75), road (OR = 2.3), screening and curtain (OR = 3.65), electricity accessibility (OR = 1.96), television (OR = 1.50), radio (OR = 1.73), telephone (OR = 2.71), and bed net (OR = 1.69). There was no significant relationship between malaria morbidity and the following determinant: residual spraying in the past 6 months (OR = 1.08). This study indicates that several factors affect on malaria control program. Malaria exists in low socio–economic and undeveloped conditions. Coordination of all sectors and close collaboration among them is a necessary component for malaria control program.
The Effect of Age Group under 15 Years on Cholera Morbidity During the Past 10 Years in Iran (1996-2005)
Hossein Masoumi-Asl,Abdoreza Esteghamati,Babak Eshrati,Seyed Mohsen Zahraei
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: The study of the effect of age, especially children under 15 years, on cholera morbidity during a period of ten years (1996-2005) was carried out in Iran. There are no other studies on this topic in Iran and other countries.Methods: In this cross sectional study, we used cholera surveillance data collected in Center for Disease Control. All cholera cases were divided into two groups: under 15 years and above 15 years. Incidence rate of cholera per 100000 was calculated in total population and the two mentioned groups during 10 years. The relative risk of less than 15 year-olds group to above 15 year-olds was calculated with95 % CI for 10 years by EPI6 and SPSS software.Findings: The trend of cholera incidence during the past 10 years shows two epidemic peaks in 1998 and 2005 by the rate of 15.7 and 1.63 per 100000, respectively. During the year with no epidemic and the years between two peaks, the age group under 15 year-olds was more affected with significant relative risk. For example, in 2001 this rate was 4.53. So, we can consider this age group as a risk factor to cholera morbidity. The age group of above 15 year-olds was more affected to cholera during epidemic years (1998, 2005) and relative risk was less than one. So, the age was protective on cholera morbidity for children in these years.Conclusion: One of the most important causes of periodic cholera epidemics every 5-6 years is changing of herd immunity. During the years between two epidemics adults have sufficient immunity and children are more affected because of first exposure and less immunity. With reduced herd immunity epidemics occur. We recommend continuing and strengthening of cholera surveillance system for detection of epidemics and treatment of highly sensitive age groups.
Retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters from ground-based sun-photometer measurements for Zanjan, Iran
A. Bayat, A. Masoumi,H. R. Khalesifard
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2011,
Abstract: We are reporting the results of ground-based spectroradiometric measurements on aerosols and water vapor in the atmosphere of Zanjan for the period of October 2006 to September 2008 using a CIMEL CE318-2 sun-photometer. Zanjan is a city in Northwest Iran, located at 36.70° N, 48.51° E, and at an altitude of 1800 m a.m.s.l. (above mean sea level). The spectral aerosol optical depth, ngstr m exponent, and columnar water vapor have been calculated using the data recorded by the sun-photometer through the direct measurements on the sun radiance (sun-mode). The average values of aerosol optical depth at 440 nm, columnar water vapor, and the ngstr m exponent, α, during the mentioned period are measured as, 0.28 ± 0.14, 0.57 ± 0.37 cm and 0.73 ± 0.30, respectively. The maximum (minimum) value of the aerosol optical depth was recorded in May 2007 (November 2007), and that of columnar water vapor, in July 2007 (January 2008). Using the least-squares method, the ngstr m exponent was calculated in the spectral interval 440–870 nm along with α1 and α2, the coefficients of a second order polynomial fit to the plotted logarithm of aerosol optical depth versus the logarithm of wavelength. The coefficient α2 shows that most of the aerosols in the Zanjan area have dimensions larger than 1 micron. The calculated values for α2 α1 indicate that 80 % of the aerosols are in the coarse-mode (>1 μm) and 20 % of them are in the fine-mode (<1 μm). Comparison of α2 α1 for the atmosphere over Zanjan with other regions indicates dust particles are the most dominant aerosols in the region.
Columnar aerosol size distribution function obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements for the Zanjan, Iran
A. Masoumi,A. Bayat,H. R. Khalesifard
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-3-2367-2010
Abstract: We are reporting the calculated values of columnar aerosol size distribution function for atmosphere of Zanjan, a city in Northwest Iran (36.70° N, 48.51° E). Ground-based measurements of the total optical depth of the Zanjan atmosphere at 440 nm, 670 nm, 870 nm, and 1020 nm are recorded using a Cimel CE318-2 sunphotometer in the period of October 2006 to September 2008. The spectral aerosol optical depth has been obtained by subtraction of molecular optical depth from the total optical depth for each wavelength channel. Also the ngstr m exponent is determined by a logarithmic fit to the aerosol optical depth when it is plotted versus the logarithm of the wavelength. Daily averages of the measured aerosol optical depth and ngstr m exponent values have been implemented in an inversion algorithm for calculation of the columnar aerosol size distribution function. In this algorithm, the aerosols are considered as spheres of different size and refractive index of 1.45. We found that for 82% of the days, aerosols are in the coarse mode. For these days, more than 50% of the aerosol volume concentration has a radius >1 μm. We believe this is related to the geographical location of Zanjan in a mostly dry area and subject to frequent dust winds.
Retrieval of atmospheric optical parameters from ground-based sun-photometer measurements for Zanjan, Iran
A. Bayat,A. Masoumi,H. R. Khalesifard
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-3-2633-2010
Abstract: We are reporting the results of ground-based spectroradiometric measurements on aerosols and water vapor in the atmosphere of Zanjan for the period of October 2006 to September 2008 using a Cimel CE318-2 sun-photometer. Zanjan is a city in Northwest Iran, located at 36.70° N, 48.51° E, and at an altitude of 1800 above m.s.l. The spectral aerosol optical depth, ngstr m exponent, and columnar water vapor have been calculated using the data recorded by the sunphotometer through direct-beam irradiance measurements of sunlight (sun mode). The average values of aerosol optical depth at 440 nm, columnar water vapor, and the ngstr m exponent, α, during the mentioned period are measured as, 0.27±0.16, 0.53±0.37 cm and 0.75±0.46, respectively. The maximum (minimum) value of the aerosol optical depth was recorded in May 2007 (January 2007), and that of columnar water vapor, in July 2007 (January 2008). Using the least-squares method, the ngstr m exponent was calculated in the spectral interval 440–870 nm along with the coefficients of a second order polynomial fit (α1 and α2) to the log-log plot of aerosol optical depth versus the wavelength. The coefficient α2 shows that most of the aerosols in the Zanjan area have dimensions larger than 1 μm. The values calculated for α2 α1 indicate that 70% of the aerosols are in the coarse-mode (>1 μm) and 30% of them are in the fine-mode (<1 μm). Comparison of α2 α1 for the atmosphere over Zanjan with other regions indicates dust and anthropogenic aerosols are the most dominant aerosols in the region.
Retrieval of aerosol single scattering albedo and polarized phase function from polarized sun-photometer measurements for Zanjan atmosphere
A. Bayat,H. R. Khalesifard,A. Masoumi
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/amtd-6-3317-2013
Abstract: Aerosol optical depth, ngstr m exponent, single scattering albedo, and polarized phase function have been retrieved from polarized sun-photometer measurements for atmosphere of Zanjan (36.70° N, 48.51° E, and 1800 m a.m.s.l.) from January 2010 to December 2012. The results show that the maximum value of aerosol polarized phase function as well as the polarized phase function retrieved for a specific scattering angle (i.e. 60°), are strongly correlated with the ngstr m exponent. The latter one has a meaningful variations respect to the changes in the complex refractive index of the atmospheric aerosols. Furthermore the polarized phase function shows a moderate negative correlation respect to atmospheric aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo. Therefore the polarized phase function can be regarded as a key parameter to characterize the atmospheric particles.
Tele-Visual Servoing of Robotic Mamipulators; Design, Implementation and Technical Issues
I. Hassanzadeh,H. Jabbari Asl
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In this study, a new architecture for tele-visual servoing of a robotic manipulator is presented. An overview of methods employed for controlling robotic manipulators using a camera is illustrated. Image-based and position-based approaches are considered. Matlab , Simulink and xPC Target toolbox are used to design a novel user-friendly toolkit called Tele-Visual Servoing Toolkit (TViST) for tele-visual servoing of robotic manipulators. TViST has hardware in the loop (HIL) property, i.e., simulation and implementation of the system are performed in the same environment. Stability analysis of visual servoing systems in presence of time delay is discussed by Lyapunov theorem. Furthermore, effects of robot dynamic on performance of the system are evaluated. In terms of low level control, proportional and H-infinity controllers are implemented as well. As a case study, a 5DOF Gryphon manipulator is considered. Simulations for various mentioned matters are done to validate the theoretical issues. Experimental results for the manipulator employing a virtual camera and a real camera are presented to illustrate and verified the practical performance.
Cloprostenol Injection Improves Reproductive Characteristics in Low Libido Iranian Holstein Bulls
R. Masoumi,A. Towhidi,A. Nejati Javaremi,H. Nabizadeh
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine whether injections of Cloprostenol (PGF2 αanalog) in low libido Holstein bulls can improve seminal characteristics and libido. Ten low libido Iranian Holstein bulls were randomly assigned to two groups and received; (1) 250 μg of Cloprostenol (n = 5) or (2) 2 mL of saline (n = 5) 30 min prior to collection of semen 2 days per week for 2 months. Reaction time was significantly decreased in treatment group. Duration of ejaculation was significantly increased in treatment group. Semen volume and sperm concentration were greater in treated bulls in compare with controls. The percentage of morphologically normal sperm cells, percentage of live sperm cells, motile sperm cells and post-thaw motile sperm cells were not affected by treatment. Plasma testosterone concentrations were increased approximately two fold after Cloprostenol injection. Overall, injection of Cloprostenol at this dosage and frequency increased libido, semen volume, sperm concentration and plasma testosterone concentration in low libido Holstein bulls.
The Relationship Between Plasma Leptin and FSH Concentrations with Ovulation Rate in Iranian Native Sheep
A. Towhidi,R. Masoumi,M.M. Moeini,H. Solgi
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma leptin and FSH concentration in Iranian sheep. Forty female Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep were used. All ewes were cyclic and synchronized with cloprestenol. The ewes were divided into two breed groups: Mehraban breed (n = 20) and Sanjabi breed (n = 20), feeding at maintenance level. On the first and second days of estrus cycle, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. Ovulation number was determined by endoscopy 7 days after the second injection. Mean Plasma leptin concentrations on second day (4.74±0.15 and 4.68±0.10 ng mL-1) were significantly higher than those on first day (2.64±0.11 and 2.56±0.04 ng mL-1) for Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep, respectively (p<0.01). Mean plasma FSH concentrations on second day (2.75±0.17 and 2.74±015 ng mL-1) were also significantly greater than those on first day (1.19±0.05 and 1.19±0.04 ng mL-1) for Mehraban and Sanjabi ewes, respectively (p<0.01). In the present study, positive relationship has been shown between plasma Leptin and FSH concentrations (p<0.01) in Mehraban and Sanjabi sheep. Ovulation rate had a significant difference between Mehraban (1.20±0.33) and Sanjabi (1.07±0.1) ewes. Significant differences were not observed between concentrations of FSH and leptin with ovulation rate in both breeds (p≤0.01).
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