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Determining Effects of Elaidic Acid on PPAR- Gamma Expression in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cell Line
H Montakhab Yegane,H Babaahmadi Rezaiy,M Doosti
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Several dietary factors are involved in cardiovascular coronary heart diseases, including trans fatty acids, which are generally formed during hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that causes conversion of liquid oils into semisolid fats. Nowadays, it is well-known that trans fatty acids form a major risk factor in the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, it has been identified that some nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, are involved and play important roles in lipid homeostasis and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we studied the effect of elaidic acid on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).Methods: Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were treated by 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid for 6 h. The control group was treated by 50% ethanol (as solvent), equivalent to the amount of ethanol used in 2 mM concentration of elaidic acid. Later, the total RNA was extracted and its cDNA was synthesized. Finally, the quantity of PPARγ gene expression was measured by real-time PCR.Results: Overall, 0.5, 1, and 2 mM concentrations of elaidic acid decreased PPARγ gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line by -1.36, -1.68, and -3.24 folds compared with the control group, respectively.Conclusion: By decreasing the expression of nuclear receptor PPARγ, elaidic acid causes, intensifies or accelerates the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis. This finding shows the importance of reducing the consumption of elaidic acid containing foods.
Transfusion Transmitted Virus (TTV) Infection in Thalassemic Patients
T Zandieh,B Babaahmadi,A Pourfathollah,H Galedari
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2005,
Abstract: TTV was first isolated from the serum of a Japanese patient with post transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology in 1977. TTV has been visualized by electron microscopy and was found to be an unenveloped, small, spherical particle with a diameter of 30-32 nm, and is a member of family related to Circovridae family. The exact role of TTV in the pathogenesis of liver disease is yet to be established. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of TTV in thalassemic patients in Ahwaz. Viral DNA was studied in 250 thalasemic patients. The results were compared with those of 250 blood donor controls. DNA was extracted from plasma and amplified by semi nested polymerase chain reaction with reported primer sets from a conserved region of the TTV genome. 57.2% (143/250) samples obtained from patients and 20% (54/250) of blood donors were positive for TTV-DNA detected by PCR. The difference in TTV prevalence between the two groups was statistically (χ2) significant (P= 0.0001). The prevalence of TTV-DNA in Iranian thalassemic patients is high, which is the same as other countries.
Cross-Reaction between the Crude Hydatid Cyst Fluid Antigens of Human and Animals Origin in Response to Human IgG Class and Subclasses
Afra Khosravi,Sobhan Ghafourian,Morteza Shamsi,Nourkhoda Sadeghifard,Abbas Maleki,Ebrahim Babaahmadi
Journal of Parasitology Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/947948
Abstract: The current work aimed to evaluate the cross-reactivity of human immune sera against crude hydatid fluid antigens of sheep, human, mouse, cattle, as well as B fraction of cystic fluid antigen. 30 balb/c mice were infected with sheep hydatid cyct fluid antigen containing protoscolex after the viability of these protoscolices was assessed. ANOVA was used to test the difference of themean of optical density (OD) values among case and control groups. The highest human IgG class antibody was against antigen B (0.93) and the lowest against cattle HCF antigen (0.32). The differences between responses to these antigens were statistically significant (<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test used for evaluating the responses of human total IgG to different hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens among the case and control groups were 100 and 95.8%, respectively. Cross-reaction of human IgG class and subclasses responses was found almost for all the antigens with the best reaction against human and cattle (HCF) antigens and antigen B using a ratio of mean OD value to each antigen divided by the cut-off point value for the same antigen. Human sera showed a considerable cross-reactivity against all antigens by using ELISA.
Clinical Manifestations and MRI Findings of Patients with Hydrated and Dehydrated Lumbar Disk Herniation
A.R. Rasekhi,A.R Babaahmadi,R. Assadsangabi,A. Nabavizadeh
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Objective: In addition to the ex-pected appearance of degenerated disks which be-come dehydrated, hydrated intervertebral disk herni-ations are sometimes encountered in radiologic prac-tice. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clini-cal manifestations and MRI findings of hydrated and dehydrated herniated intervertebral disks. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional single institution study included 73 patients with dehy-drated (group I) and hydrated (group II) lumbar disk herniation. The criteria for hydrated and dehydrated disk herniation was a subjective criteria compared to the normal signal of intervertebral disks. A herniated disk has been regarded to be hydrated if more than 2/3 of it was hypersignal in T2-weighted images, while more than 2/3 of a dehydrated disk was hy-posignal on T2-weighted images. Results: Mean weight of patients in group I was greater than patients in group II (69.3 vs. 64.2, P<0.05). In addition, patients in group I tend to be older than group II (35.2 vs. 28.9, P<0.05). Consider-ing physical activity, a greater number of patients in group II had intense physical activity compared to group I (25% vs. 13.2% respectively, P<0.05). The duration of radicular pain and back pain was signifi-cantly greater in group I than in group II (485 vs. 202 and 1346 vs. 242 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion: Hydrated intervertebral disk herniation tends to be associated with younger age, lighter body weight, shorter duration of radicular pain and more intense physical activity compared to dehydrated in-tervertebral disk herniation. These findings may sug-gest other mechanisms rather than degenerative changes for hydrated disk herniation.
Euler-Lagrange Elasticity: Differential Equations for Elasticity without Stress or Strain  [PDF]
H. H. Hardy
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2013.17004
Abstract:

Differential equations to describe elasticity are derived without the use of stress or strain. The points within the body are the independent parameters instead of strain and surface forces replace stress tensors. These differential equations are a continuous analytical model that can then be solved using any of the standard techniques of differential equations. Although the equations do not require the definition stress or strain, these quantities can be calculated as dependent parameters. This approach to elasticity is simple, which avoids the need for multiple definitions of stress and strain, and provides a simple experimental procedure to find scalar representations of material properties in terms of the energy of deformation. The derived differential equations describe both infinitesimal and finite deformations.

Euler-Lagrange Elasticity with Dynamics  [PDF]
H. H. Hardy
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.213138
Abstract: The equations of Euler-Lagrange elasticity describe elastic deformations without reference to stress or strain. These equations as previously published are applicable only to quasi-static deformations. This paper extends these equations to include time dependent deformations. To accomplish this, an appropriate Lagrangian is defined and an extrema of the integral of this Lagrangian over the original material volume and time is found. The result is a set of Euler equations for the dynamics of elastic materials without stress or strain, which are appropriate for both finite and infinitesimal deformations of both isotropic and anisotropic materials. Finally, the resulting equations are shown to be no more than Newton's Laws applied to each infinitesimal volume of the material.
Linear Algebra Provides a Basis for Elasticity without Stress or Strain  [PDF]
H. H. Hardy
Soft (Soft) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/soft.2015.43003
Abstract: Linear algebra provides insights into the description of elasticity without stress or strain. Classical descriptions of elasticity usually begin with defining stress and strain and the constitutive equations of the material that relate these to each other. Elasticity without stress or strain begins with the positions of the points and the energy of deformation. The energy of deformation as a function of the positions of the points within the material provides the material properties for the model. A discrete or continuous model of the deformation can be constructed by minimizing the total energy of deformation. As presented, this approach is limited to hyper-elastic materials, but is appropriate for infinitesimal and finite deformations, isotropic and anisotropic materials, as well as quasi-static and dynamic responses.
Spectral resolution in hyperbolic orbifolds, quantum chaos, and cosmology
H. Then
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: We present a few subjects from physics that have one in common: the spectral resolution of the Laplacian.
Arithmetic quantum chaos of Maass waveforms
H. Then
Mathematics , 2003,
Abstract: We compute numerically eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the quantum Hamiltonian that describes the quantum mechanics of a point particle moving freely in a particular three-dimensional hyperbolic space of finite volume and investigate the distribution of the eigenvalues.
Maass cusp forms for large eigenvalues
H. Then
Mathematics , 2003,
Abstract: We investigate the numerical computation of Maass cusp forms for the modular group corresponding to large eigenvalues. We present Fourier coefficients of two cusp forms whose eigenvalues exceed r=40000. These eigenvalues are the largest that have so far been found in the case of the modular group. They are larger than the 130millionth eigenvalue.
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