Abstract:
An upper bound of the superbridge index of the connected sum of two knots is given in terms of the braid index of the summands. Using this upper bound and minimal polygonal presentations, we give an upper bound in terms of the superbridge index and the bridge index of the summands when they are torus knots. In contrast to the fact that the difference between the sum of bridge indices of two knots and the bridge index of their connected sum is always one, the corresponding difference for the superbridge index can be arbitrarily large.

Abstract:
It is known that every nontrivial knot has at least two quadrisecants. Given a knot, we mark each intersection point of each of its quadrisecants. Replacing each subarc between two nearby marked points with a straight line segment joining them, we obtain a polygonal closed curve which we will call the quadrisecant approximation of the given knot. We show that for any hexagonal trefoil knot, there are only three quadrisecants, and the resulting quadrisecant approximation has the same knot type.

Abstract:
The normalized Yamada polynomial is a polynomial invariant in variable A for theta-curves. In this work, we show that the coefficients of the power series obtained from this polynomial by the substitution A=e^x=1+x+x^2/2+x^3/6+... are finite-type invariants for theta-curves although the coefficients of original polynomial are not. A similar result can be obtained in the case of Yokota polynomial for theta-curves.

Abstract:
As a supplement to the authors' article "Prime knots with arc index up to 11 and an upper bound of arc index for non-alternating knots", to appear in the Journal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications, we present minimal arc presentations of the prime knots up to arc index 11.

Abstract:
Every knot can be embedded in the union of finitely many half planes with a common boundary line in such a way that the portion of the knot in each half plane is a properly embedded arc. The minimal number of such half planes is called the arc index of the knot. We have identified all prime knots with arc index up to 11. We also proved that the crossing number is an upperbound of arc index for non-alternating knots. As a result the arc index is determined for prime knots up to twelve crossings.

Abstract:
Although there are infinitely many knots with superbridge index n for every even integer n>2, there are only finitely many knots with superbridge index 3.

Abstract:
We computed the arc index for some of the pretzel knots $K=P(-p,q,r)$ with $p,q,r\ge2$, $r\geq q$ and at most one of $p,q,r$ is even. If $q=2$, then the arc index $\alpha(K)$ equals the minimal crossing number $c(K)$. If $p\ge3$ and $q=3$, then $\alpha(K)=c(K)-1$. If $p\ge5$ and $q=4$, then $\alpha(K)=c(K)-2$.

Abstract:
It is known that the arc index of alternating knots is the minimal crossing number plus two and the arc index of prime nonalternating knots is less than or equal to the minimal crossing number. We study some cases when the arc index is strictly less than the minimal crossing number. We also give minimal grid diagrams of some prime nonalternating knots with 13 crossings and 14 crossings whose arc index is the minimal crossing number minus one.

Abstract:
We study the situation where we have two exceptional Dehn fillings on a given hyperbolic 3-manifold. We consider two cases that one filling creates a projective plane, and the other creates an essential torus or a Klein bottle, and give the best possible upper bound on the distance between two fillings for each case.

Abstract:
We consider compressed sampling over finite fields and investigate the number of compressed measurements needed for successful L0 recovery. Our results are obtained while the sparseness of the sensing matrices as well as the size of the finite fields are varied. One of interesting conclusions includes that unless the signal is "ultra" sparse, the sensing matrices do not have to be dense.