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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 549 matches for " Gwen Robbins "
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Infection, Disease, and Biosocial Processes at the End of the Indus Civilization
Gwen Robbins Schug, K. Elaine Blevins, Brett Cox, Kelsey Gray, V. Mushrif-Tripathy
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084814
Abstract: In the third millennium B.C., the Indus Civilization flourished in northwest India and Pakistan. The late mature phase (2200-1900 B.C.) was characterized by long-distance exchange networks, planned urban settlements, sanitation facilities, standardized weights and measures, and a sphere of influence over 1,000,000 square kilometers of territory. Recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the Beas River Valley demonstrate hydro-climatic stress due to a weakened monsoon system may have impacted urban centers like Harappa by the end of the third millennium B.C. the impact of environmental change was compounded by concurrent disruptions to the regional interaction sphere. Climate, economic, and social changes contributed to the disintegration of this civilization after 1900 B.C. We assess evidence for paleopathology to infer the biological consequences of climate change and socio-economic disruption in the post-urban period at Harappa, one of the largest urban centers in the Indus Civilization. Bioarchaeological evidence demonstrates the prevalence of infection and infectious disease increased through time. Furthermore, the risk for infection and disease was uneven among burial communities. Corresponding mortuary differences suggest that socially and economically marginalized communities were most vulnerable in the context of climate uncertainty at Harappa. Combined with prior evidence for increasing levels of interpersonal violence, our data support a growing pathology of power at Harappa after 2000 B.C. Observations of the intersection between climate change and social processes in proto-historic cities offer valuable lessons about vulnerability, insecurity, and the long-term consequences of short-term strategies for coping with climate change.
Ancient Skeletal Evidence for Leprosy in India (2000 B.C.)
Gwen Robbins, V. Mushrif Tripathy, V. N. Misra, R. K. Mohanty, V. S. Shinde, Kelsey M. Gray, Malcolm D. Schug
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005669
Abstract: Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that affects almost 250,000 people worldwide. The timing of first infection, geographic origin, and pattern of transmission of the disease are still under investigation. Comparative genomics research has suggested M. leprae evolved either in East Africa or South Asia during the Late Pleistocene before spreading to Europe and the rest of the World. The earliest widely accepted evidence for leprosy is in Asian texts dated to 600 B.C. Methodology/Principal Findings We report an analysis of pathological conditions in skeletal remains from the second millennium B.C. in India. A middle aged adult male skeleton demonstrates pathological changes in the rhinomaxillary region, degenerative joint disease, infectious involvement of the tibia (periostitis), and injury to the peripheral skeleton. The presence and patterning of lesions was subject to a process of differential diagnosis for leprosy including treponemal disease, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, and non-specific infection. Conclusions/Significance Results indicate that lepromatous leprosy was present in India by 2000 B.C. This evidence represents the oldest documented skeletal evidence for the disease. Our results indicate that Vedic burial traditions in cases of leprosy were present in northwest India prior to the first millennium B.C. Our results also support translations of early Vedic scriptures as the first textual reference to leprosy. The presence of leprosy in skeletal material dated to the post-urban phase of the Indus Age suggests that if M. leprae evolved in Africa, the disease migrated to India before the Late Holocene, possibly during the third millennium B.C. at a time when there was substantial interaction among the Indus Civilization, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. This evidence should be impetus to look for additional skeletal and molecular evidence of leprosy in India and Africa to confirm the African origin of the disease.
Exploring the Association between Adult Attachment Styles in Romantic Relationships, Perceptions of Parents from Childhood and Relationship Satisfaction  [PDF]
Gwen Gleeson, Amanda Fitzgerald
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.613196
Abstract: Little research has examined how attachment styles in childhood are related to current romantic relationship experiences. The aim of this study was to explore the association between perceptions of childhood experiences with parents, attachment styles in romantic relationships, and relationship satisfaction in a sample of young adults. The sample consisted of 227 participants, 153 of which were university students and the remaining 69 were members of the general population. Of these, 177 (78%) were female and 50 (22%) were male, with an age range of 18 - 39. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures assessing their attachment style in romantic relationships, satisfaction in their current romantic relationship, and an adjective checklist describing their parents and their parent’s relationship with each other. The majority of males had an avoidant-fearful style, while females tended to have an avoidant-fearful or secure style. Findings were that participants’ descriptions of their mother, father, and parental relationship were associated with their attachment style. In terms of a current romantic relationship, those with a secure attachment style were much more likely to be in a relationship whereas those with an avoidant-fearful style were not. Secure participants were more satisfied in their relationships than the insecure styles of attachment. Finally, chi-square tests revealed that there was no association between gender and attachment style. Results were discussed in terms of methodological limitations such as the use of self-report measures; theoretical weaknesses for example the variability in the approaches used in attachment research; and future research, which included the use of longitudinal studies which may offer insight into how early parenting behaviours act as predictors of later relationship functioning.
A Complimentary Ministry? The Psychological Type of Clergy Women in the Church in Wales  [PDF]
Mandy Robbins
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.615192
Abstract: The debate around the admission of women to the ministry of the Anglican churches has focused on a number of issues, not least, the extent to which women bring “balance” to ministry (see for example Furlong, 1991). Balance, when used in this context is usually seen as bringing different gifts to ministry. The assumption often made is that these “different gifts” will be those traditionally associated with women such as work with children. This argument has been employed by both those for and against the entry of women into holy orders (Harris & Shaw, 2004; Baker, 2004). Benjamin Schneider’s attraction-selection-attrition theory suggests that the group of people within an organisation move toward homogeneity. Schneider’s theory would suggest that the argument that women bring balance to ministry would not be supported. The current study employs psychological type theory to explore whether clergywomen in the Church in Wales do bring “balance” to ministry or “homogeneity”. The psychological type profile of a sample of 75 Church in Wales clergywomen measured by the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS) is compared with a sample of 266 Church in Wales clergymen (Francis, Payne, & Robbins, 2013). The findings present no significant differences between the clergymen and clergywomen with regard to their judging function, perceiving function, orientation to the outer world or attitude toward the outer world. This finding lends support to Schneider’s theory. The implications of these findings for ministry in the Church in Wales are discussed.
Sticky Seeding in Discrete-Time Reversible-Threshold Networks
Gwen Spencer
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: When nodes can repeatedly update their behavior (as in agent-based models or repeated-game play settings) the problem of optimal network seeding becomes very complex. For the popular model of binary-behavior updating based on thresholds of adoption among neighbors, we consider several planning problems in the design of \textit{Sticky Interventions}: when adoption decisions are reversible, the planner aims to find a Seed Set where temporary intervention leads to long-term behavior change. We prove that completely converting a network at minimum cost is $\Omega(\ln (OPT) )$-hard to approximate and that maximizing conversion subject to a budget is $(1-\frac{1}{e})$-hard to approximate. Optimization heuristics which rely on many objective function evaluations may still be practical, particularly in relatively-sparse networks: we prove that the long-term impact of a Seed Set can be evaluated in $O(|E|^2)$ operations. For a more descriptive model variant in which some neighbors may be more influential than others, we show that under integer edge weights from $\{0,1,2,...,k\}$ objective function evaluation requires only $O(k|E|^2)$ operations. These operation bounds are based on improvements we give for bounds on time-steps-to-convergence under discrete-time reversible-threshold updates in networks.
Psychological distress and SSRI use predict variation in inflammatory cytokines during pregnancy  [PDF]
Gwen Latendresse, R. Jeanne Ruiz, Bob Wong
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.31A034
Abstract:

Evidence supports the premise that maternal psychological distress adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and that inflammatory markers and placentally-produced corticotrophin-releasing hormone (pCRH) are likely mediating factors. The primary aim of the study was to explore the associations between maternal psychological distress, use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, pCRH, and maternal plasma inflammatory markers during pregnancy. Measures of maternal plasma pCRH, Interleukins-1, 6, & 10, C-Reactive Protein, Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-αwere completed in 100 pregnant women. Measures of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress were completed, as well as collection of demographic/behavioral data, e.g. use of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Significant correlations were found at 14-20 weeks gestation between IL-6 & 10, and depression, anxiety, and perceived stress. Also at 14 - 20 weeks gestation, IL10 levels were significantly lower in women with 4th quartile pCRH levels and IL1β, IL6, and IL10 were significantly lower among women who took an SSRI during pregnancy. After controlling for maternal age, BMI, pCRH level, and SSRI use, psychological distress remained to explain variation in maternal inflammatory markers. These results might suggest that future research should focus on whether depression and anxiety are effectively being treated during pregnancy, and how such a scenario might contribute to an immune system pathway to poor pregnancy outcome.


Simulation and Millennials—The Perfect Storm  [PDF]
Gwen D. Erlam, Liz Smythe, Valerie Wright
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.69071
Abstract: Simulation in its various forms has developed extensively over the past 15 - 20 years for use in undergraduate nursing programs. The widespread integration of technology-based educational tools into nursing curricula is raising concerns that technology rather than sound philosophically-based pedagogy is informing nursing education. Some believe that educational soundness has been overtaken by a focus on technological prowess. The manikins used in this immersive classroom often breathe, blink, and even speak in response to lecturer-controlled commands. This research explores how Millennials as a generational cohort (18 - 30 years of age) interface with the teaching/learning platform of simulation. This action research study is unfolded in three distinct action cycles involving 161 undergraduate nursing students. Millennial characteristics of confidence, high achievement, team orientation, technology focus, feedback-saturated, and trophy-seeking traits make them especially adept in immersive simulation environment. If supported by appropriate philosophical underpinnings, simulation as a teaching/learning platform has the potential to become the preferred classroom for Millennial nursing students.
Trace Metal Concentrations in Pine Needles at Varying Elevation in Proximity to Roadways in an Urban Environment  [PDF]
Graham Brown, Isabella Luu, Gwen O’Sullivan
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.86047
Abstract: Conifer needles bioaccumulate atmospheric pollutants, including trace metals, and may be used to monitor variations in atmospheric concentration. Needles were analyzed to determine whether a correlation exists between elevations and trace metal concentrations in proximity to roadways and other non-point sources. Composite samples of white spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) needles were collected along hillsides in eastern and western Calgary, respectively. A combined total of 11 sites was sampled along two transects of increasing elevation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace metal concentrations was completed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synthesized using regression analysis. The concentrations of cobalt, nickel, and calcium in the samples were found to exhibit a significant (P < 0.05) relationship with respect to elevation and proximity to roadways.
Peer-Reviewing Peer-Reviewing Revisión por pares
Gwen Peniche,Jarg Bergold
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2000,
Abstract: URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0001305 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0001305 URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0001305
Frédérique Spill, L’idiotie dans l’ uvre de Faulkner, Paris, Presses de la Sorbonne Nouvelle, 2009
Gwen Le Cor
Transatlantica : Revue d'études Américaines , 2011,
Abstract: Prix Nobel de Littérature en 1950, William Faulkner est un écrivain dont l’ uvre fa onne, à bien des égards, l’image que nous avons de la littérature du Sud des états-Unis. Dans une remarque célèbre, Flannery O’Connor, souligne la difficulté que les écrivains du Sud éprouvent à écrire après Faulkner :The presence alone of Faulkner in our midst makes a great difference in what the writer can or cannot permit himself to do. Nobody wants his mule and wagon stalled on the same track the Dixie Lim...
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