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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9015 matches for " Gustavo Caponi "
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Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2009,
Abstract: having as starting point that a proximal cause is one whose effects can be registered in the states of an individual organism, in this work i will argue that what defines an ultimate cause is the fact that its effects can be registered in the evolution of lineages, and not simply in population states. this, on the other hand, not only will allow us to clarify how the developmental constraints can be understood as causes of the evolutionary phenomena; but also it will allow us to point the eminently historical character of developmental evolutionary biology that wallace arthur undermined in biased embryos and evolution. thus, and following this latter reasoning, i will also try to show that, although the action of developmental constraints could happen beyond the limits of a population or a particular species, does not imply that we are facing the return of typological thought in evolutionary biology.
Darwin: entre Paley y Demócrito
Caponi, Gustavo;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702003000300010
Abstract: the article offers a brief overview of the question of the possible teleological nature of the darwinist explanation of adaptation, following this issue's development from the nineteenth century to the present. the question is initially approached from the perspective of robert brandon's position but, moving beyond this author's theses to those of daniel dennett, the text goes on to argue that natural selection lies closer to an intentional explanation than to physic's causal explanation.
Física del organismo vs hermenéutica del viviente: el alcance del programa reduccionista en la biología contemporánea
Caponi, Gustavo;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702007000200004
Abstract: the distinction between functional biology and evolutionary biology, as set out by e. mayr and f. jacob, is central to any conclusive findings on one of the most widely discussed problems in the philosophy of biology: the possible reduction of biology to physics and chemistry. the questions that define the cognitive objectives of functional biology are different from those that guide physics: they are functional questions, but the answers we seek for them can be expressed in the language of physics. meanwhile, the questions set forth in evolutionary biology lead to a kind of discourse that cannot be translated into the language of physics. in order to show this we analyze the experimental procedures that have been developed in population genetics.
La miseria de la degeneración: el materialismo de Buffon y las 'limitaciones' de su transformismo
Caponi, Gustavo;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702009000300007
Abstract: in "of the degeneration of animals" (1766), buffon espoused a kind of limited transformism. yet twelve years later, in epochs of nature, he supplemented this with a materialist theory on the origin of life that left no room for this alternative: the conditions under which living beings develop could explain how the different species within each animal genus had formed through the degeneration of an originating species. but the formation of these multiple, originating varieties could only be explained by a sudden process of spontaneous generation. a limitation inherent to the very system of ideas that had taken buffon to limited transformism - the underlying theory of generation and reproduction - preempted the possibility of its radicalization.
Los taxones como tipos: Buffon, Cuvier y Lamarck
Caponi, Gustavo;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702011000100002
Abstract: from a darwinian point of view, taxonomic groups are understood as historical entities that arise at an evolutionary moment and that can always disappear. but these groups were also understood by many naturalists as natural kinds; in other words, as permanent, ahistorical types. i will explore some of the forms that this typological thought took, showing that this typological perspective neither depends on theological beliefs, nor obeys the adoption of an ontology that might contradict natural science. thus i shall analyze buffon's understanding of species and the ways in which cuvier and lamarck understood the higher taxonomic orders.
Claude Bernard y los límites de la fisiología experimental
Caponi, Gustavo;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702001000300005
Abstract: in his le?ons sur les phénomènes de la vie communs aux animaux et aux végétaux, claude bernard set some of the boundaries for the program developed by himself in his introduction à l'étude de la médicine expérimentale, which seems to be questioned by the very existence of biology of evolution and biology of development. here, according to a bernardian perspective, the author discusses possible fundamentals for this apparent limitation.
Félix de Azara, crítico de Buffon
Caponi, Gustavo;
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1981-81222011000100008
Abstract: in his "remarks for the natural history of the quadrupeds of paraguay and rio de la plata" of 1802, felix de azara (1742-1821) not only revised the identification and descriptions of many south american species made by buffon; but also developed arguments against buffon's thesis that the south american climate stimulated the degeneration of living beings. moreover, azara outlined an explanation of the origin of varieties of one species that, instead of appealing to the direct effects of climate and feeding, resorted to the emergence of hereditary fortuitous variations. this latter hypothesis was an alternative to the theory of degeneration proposed by buffon and accepted, although in an attenuated way, by most pre-darwinian naturalists.
El retorno de la ontogenia: un conflicto de ideales de orden natural en la biología evolucionaria actual
Caponi, Gustavo;
Scientiae Studia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-31662007000100002
Abstract: in this work i will try to show that stephen toulmin's notion of an ideal of natural order could be very useful to characterize the clash between the orthodox neo-darwinism and the evolutionary developmental biology, or evo-devo, that today seems to affect the very foundations of the new synthesis. the works in evo-devo, i will say, lead to re-examinate the relation between ontogeny and phylogeny in a way that supposes a displacement of which i will characterize as the classic darwinism's ideal of natural order. thus, after trying to identify this last ideal of natural order, i will try to identify the alternative ideal of natural order to which the present researches in evo-devo would obey.
El viviente y su medio: antes y después de Darwin
Caponi, Gustavo;
Scientiae Studia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-31662006000100002
Abstract: reiterated references to a presumed predarwinian adaptationism that we found in the present literature about evolutionary biology can produce a distorted image of the subjects and problems which really occupied the predarwinian naturalists and of the importance that these naturalists indeed gave to the study of the complex relations that the morphologic particularities of living beings keep with the environmental exigencies. in this work, i will try to show that this last topic did not occupy an important place in the natural history that immediately precedes the darwinian revolution; and i will suggest that this lack of interest was associated with the persistence of an idea of natural economy in which each living being had a function to fulfill and not a place to conquer and to defend. finally, i will show how the change of attitude towards that topic stimulated by the darwinism impacted in the work of the field naturalists.
Os modos da teleologia em Cuvier, Darwin e Claude Bernard
Caponi, Gustavo;
Scientiae Studia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-31662003000100003
Abstract: pre-darwinian biology acknowledged the existence in living beings of a double finality: different structures were not only constituted and articulated in such a way as to integrate an organized being, but they also allowed the fit of this being into its environment. however, this double conformity to ends, still conceived by cuvier as an unique set of conditions that defined the very possibility of an organism, will in contemporary biology appear split into two different kinds of phenomena. thus, after identifying the turning point in the history of life sciences where that partition happened, we shall analyze the conceptual conditions that made it both possible and necessary. we hold that this "conceptual mitosis" had its raison d'être in the end of the classical idea of natural economy; and we shall also argue that it must be considered in the context of a change in the ideal of natural order of natural history.
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