Abstract:
Nanosized perovskite YTiO3 with the mean crystallite size of 18 nm was synthesized for the first time by mechanochemical treatment. The mechanochemical solid state reaction between commercial Y2O3 powder and mechanochemically synthesized TiO powder in molar ratio 0.5:1 was completed for 3 h in a high-energy planetary ball mill in argon atmosphere. The heating in vacuum at 1150 °C for 12 h transforms nanosized YTiO3 to a well-crystallized single-phase perovskite YTiO3. Both samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TGA/DTA) analyses, as well as superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID) measurements.

Abstract:
Nano-sized titanium monoxide (TiO) powder was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. A mixture of commercial Ti and TiO2 (rutile) powders with the molar ratio of 1:1 was milled in a planetary ball mill for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min under argon atmosphere. The final single-phase titanium monoxide sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility is characterized by significant contribution of Pauli paramagnetism due to conduction electrons.

Abstract:
286 unrelated patients with definite MS and 362 unrelated healthy controls of Russian descent were genotyped at polymorphic loci (including SNPs, repeat polymorphisms, and an insertion/deletion) of the DRB1, TNF, LT, TGFβ1, CCR5 and CTLA4 genes and TNFa and TNFb microsatellites. Each allele carriership in patients and controls was compared by Fisher's exact test, and disease-associated combinations of alleles in the data set were sought using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo-based method recently developed by our group.We identified two previously unknown MS-associated tri-allelic combinations:-509TGFβ1*C, DRB1*18(3), CTLA4*G and -238TNF*B1,-308TNF*A2, CTLA4*G, which perfectly separate MS cases from controls, at least in the present sample. The previously described DRB1*15(2) allele, the microsatellite TNFa9 allele and the biallelic combination CCR5Δ32, DRB1*04 were also reidentified as MS-associated.These results represent an independent validation of MS association with DRB1*15(2) and TNFa9 in Russians and are the first to find the interplay of three loci in conferring susceptibility to MS. They demonstrate the efficacy of our approach for the identification of complex-disease-associated combinations of alleles.Investigation of polygenic human diseases, which arise from the combined contribution of multiple independently acting and/or interacting polymorphic genes, remains a great challenge [1-3]. A common constituent of the complexity that underlies the susceptibility to polygenic diseases is heterogeneity [3,4]. MS [MIM 126200] is an immune-mediated hereditary disease [5,6], and can be considered as a prototype for polygenic human diseases [4]. The results of linkage-based whole genome screen studies [7,8] and a global meta-analysis [9,10] document the concept that MS is the result of the interaction of several genes. The effects of individual genes are small or modest, making association studies more informative than others because of their greater statistic

Abstract:
High-frequency (HF) seismic radiation of large earthquakes is approximately represented by P wave trains recorded at teleseismic distances. Observed envelopes of such signals look random and intermittent, suggesting non-trivial stochastic structure. Variogram and spectral analyses were applied to instant power calculated from band-filtered observed P-wave signals from eight large (Mw=7.6-9.2) earthquakes, with 8-30 records per event and eight non-overvlapping frequency bands analyzed (total frequency range 0.6-6.2 Hz, bandwidth 0.7 Hz). Estimates for both variograms and power spectra look linear in log-log scale, suggesting in most cases self-similar correlation structure of the signal. The range for the individual-event values of the Hurst exponent H is 0.71-0.80 (averaged over bands and stations) when estimated from variograms, and 0.78-0.83 when estimated from spectra. No systematic dependence on station or frequency band was noticed. The values of H around 0.8 may be characteristic for large earthquakes in general. The result suggests that the space-time organization of earthquake rupture process has significant fractal features. Also, a useful constraint is established for application-oriented earthquake strong motion modeling.

We propose a hypothesis
according to which there is a hierarchy of included steady states in living systems.
Each steady state is not stable and exists only in a certain frame of time, named
characteristic time. Evolution of system to any steady state leads to a change
of boundary conditions for all steady states having lesser characteristic time.
It should not be very rapid. In the opposite case, the level of entropy production
could change so much that the system achieves a critical unstable point of any included
steady state. Passing through the critical point leads to reorganization of the
entire hierarchy of the steady states or to the complete collapse of the system
as a dissipative structure. Also one should take into account that living systems
are the result of long-term biological evolution. The species that are able to
maintain their integrity for the longest time interval have evolutionary advantage.
Therefore, it is quite likely that difference between current value of the entropy
production and value of the entropy production in nearest steady state is small
enough to satisfy the laws of linear thermodynamics. Experimental data confirm the
hypothesis. Limits of applicability of linear thermodynamics to biological systems
are discussed.

Abstract:
This paper analyzes the essence and the scale of implementation of marketing innovations related to the entry in Ukraines financial sector by foreign banks. In a study author has found the key areas of influence of the foreign banks expansion on the dynamics of renewal and modernization of the domestic market for financial and credit services, features of the competition intensification for consumers and segments of business space, the essence of a process of universalization of banking institutions and the quality of banking services. It was determined banks incentives for looking for new approaches towards expanding its own operations, primarily through the development of bank marketing tools.

Abstract:
Given bounded vector field $b : \mathbb R^d \to \mathbb R^d$, scalar field $u : \mathbb R^d \to \mathbb R$ and a smooth function $\beta : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ we study the characterization of the distribution $\mathrm{div}(\beta(u)b)$ in terms of $\mathrm{div}\, b$ and $\mathrm{div}(u b)$. In the case of $BV$ vector fields $b$ (and under some further assumptions) such characterization was obtained by L. Ambrosio, C. De Lellis and J. Mal\'y, up to an error term which is a measure concentrated on so-called \emph{tangential set} of $b$. We answer some questions posed in their paper concerning the properties of this term. In particular we construct a nearly incompressible $BV$ vector field $b$ and a bounded function $u$ for which this term is nonzero. For steady nearly incompressible vector fields $b$ (and under some further assumptions) in case when $d=2$ we provide complete characterization of $\mathrm{div}(\beta(u) b)$ in terms of $\mathrm{div}\, b$ and $\mathrm{div}(u b)$. Our approach relies on the structure of level sets of Lipschitz functions on $\mathrm R^2$ obtained by G. Alberti, S. Bianchini and G. Crippa. Extending our technique we obtain new sufficient conditions when any bounded weak solution $u$ of $\partial_t u + b \cdot \nabla u=0$ is \emph{renormalized}, i.e. also solves $\partial_t \beta(u) + b \cdot \nabla \beta(u)=0$ for any smooth function $\beta : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$. As a consequence we obtain new uniqueness result for this equation.

The experimental data represented in the bibliography are theoretically analyzed to construct an adequate model for dynamics of an open nonequilibrium living system. It is shown that the viable microorganisms are capable of forming the fractal structure, whose dimensionality is certainly non-integral. In addition, we have attempted to provide a generalized description of the properties of living and nonliving matter (in the addition to that described in work [1]). Relevant published data were used to demonstrate a fractal structure of the space in the vicinity of centrally gravitating bodies with satellites revolving around them along closed trajectories and serving as a kind of testers of the neighboring space. A local violation of its discontinuity is likely to be a necessary (yet not sufficient!) dynamic characteristic of the spatiotemporal continuum for self-organization of molecules into a living, i.e., self-replicating, system.

Abstract:
The local interstellar antiproton spectrum is simulated taking into account antineutron decay, (He,p) interaction, secondary and tertiary antiproton production, and the solar modulation in the “force field” approximation. Inclusive invariant cross-sections were obtained through a Monte Carlo procedure using the Multistage Dynamical Model code simulating various processes of the particle production. The results of the simulations provided flux values of 4？10？3 to 10？2 and 10？2 to 1.7？10？2 antiprotons/(2 s sr GeV) at energies of 0.2 and 1 GeV, respectively, for the solar maximum and minimum epochs. Simulated flux of the trapped antiprotons in the inner magnetosphere due to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) interactions with the atmospheric constituents exceeds the galactic antiproton flux up to several orders. These simulation results considering the assumptions with the attendant limitations are in comprehensive agreement with the experimental data including the PAMELA ones.

Abstract:
Occurrence of citrinin and ochratoxin A in different feed ingredients and compound feeds was screened by accredited methods based on the indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High frequency co-occurrence of both toxins was found in wheat grain and processed sunflower seeds. Citrinin levels exceeded those of ochratoxin A in the majority of co-contaminated feed samples, and the ratio of (1.1 - 10):1 proved to be the most frequent. A possible role of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi in separate and simultaneous OTA and CIT occurrence in feeds is also discussed.