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FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS
Gururaj S.Kulkarni,N.G RaghavendraRao,D.Narasimhareddy
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04340
Abstract: The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymer sodium alginate with one side absorption by backing layer with ethyl cellulose. The buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate studied in detail. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS) were prepared using polymer sodium alginate, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 79.25 to 99.85%.
DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES
Gururaj S. Kulkarni* and D. Narasinha Reddy
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Most of the therapeutic agents are recommended through an oral route, but oral route has disadvantages like first pass metabolism, liver toxicity, etc, due to gastrointestinal pH. This leads poor bioavailability of drugs, which are not stable in G.I pH. To overcome this problem, increase the bioiavailibility, reduce the dose and dose dumping Transdermal delivery system is better option as novel drug delivery system, which bypass the hepatic first pass metabolism, and avoid drug degradation due to systemic absorption of the drug. Minimize plasma level fluctuations and extend the drug activity besides improving patient compliance. Sumatriptan succinate is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype agonist. Sumatriptan succinate is chemically designated as 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-indole-5-methanesulfonamide succinate. Sumatriptan succinate is a white to off-white powder that is readily soluble in water. Oral administration of Sumatriptan succinate suffers from poorbioavailability, partly due to presystemic metabolism- some of it gets broken down in the stomach and bloodstream before it reaches the target arteries. Sumatriptan is metabolized primarily by monoamine oxidase A into an indole acetic acid analogue, part of which is further conjugated with glucuronic acid. These metabolites excreted in the urine and bile. Only about 3% of the active drug may be recovered unchanged. Because of this the bioavailability is only 15% with half life is 2.5 hrs. In this work, the effort has done to improve bioavailability of the sumatriptan succinate by transdermal patches dosage form by using polymers HPMCK4M, carbopol934 and Dibutylpthalate as used as plasticizers.
Evaluation of Reproductive Characteristics of 21 Highly Inbred Lines of White Leghorns Divergently Selected for or Segregating in Tumor Resistance  [PDF]
Gururaj Kulkarni, Huanmin Zhang
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.51008
Abstract: Reproduction performance of 21 inbred experimental lines of White Leghorns was evaluated based on samples of reproduction records over a period of eight consecutive years. Two lines (63 and 72) have been extensively used in studies, especially in research seeking for genetic and epigenetic factors underlying resistance to avian tumor virus-induced diseases in chickens. The other 19 lines are recombinant congenic strains (RCS), which were generated by crossing lines 63 and 72 followed by two consecutive backcrosses to the line 63 and then full-sib mating. In theory, each RCS processes 7/8 of progenitor background line 63 genome and a random sample (1/8) of the progenitor donor line 72 genome. All 21 inbred lines share a common major histocompatibility complex haplotype, B*2. The estimated average fertility of the 21 inbred lines ranged from 72.9% (RCS-J) up to 96.8% (RCS-P). Both progenitor lines 63 and 72 were observed with lower average fertility (82.4% and 81.6%, respectively) in comparison with the RCS except the RCS-J, suggesting a substantial polygenic component underlying the fertility phenotype. The average embryo mortality rate ranged from 14.5% (RCS-P) up to 47.0% (RCS-M). The background line 63 fell at about the middle of the range (28.3%) significantly higher than the donor line 72 (15.7%), which was among the group with the lowest embryo mortality. By definition, hatchability of fertile eggs is reversely correlated with embryo mortality. The average hatchability ranged from 26.5% (RCS-M) up to 66.8% (line 72) while the background line 63 remained (46.6%) at about the middle of the range. The variability of the average embryo mortality and hatchability observed among the 21 inbred lines indicated the two correlated traits also follow polygenic models of inheritance. Findings from this study paves the way for further investigation on genetic and environmental influence over reproductive performance of inbred lines of chickens, and particularly in understanding and improving the reproduction fitness of invaluable genetic resources like these inbred lines.
Case of Successful Evolution of Strategy to Create a Sustainable Business Organization: Managerial Implications and Challenges
Gururaj Kulkarni
International Journal of Business and Management , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v8n5p96
Abstract: About couple of decades back, Prince Group was one of the leaders in Plastic Industry. They had occupied No. 2 status in the country. This one particular organization of the Prince Group, was in the business of Manufacturing an d Marketing of Injection molded Crates, Blow molded jars, drums, bottles etc. Its main business came from two big multinational organizations who contributed around 75 to 80% of turnover for the previous 6 to 8 years. However, this demand from these two major customers dropped drastically later. As a result, the turnover of this Organization dropped below by 50% of earlier level before quietly slipping into loss. At this juncture, I was invited to join this organization as Strategy Manager. I initiated Strategy Planning process covering both Manufacturing and Marketing functions as a part of recovery process. This case deals with how the strategy was evolved and the Organization implemented the same; hitherto unknown initiatives were taken, what results were achieved both financially and non-financially. Finally, at the end of 3 years this organization bounced back with bang with a decent turnover and profit. In the process, the business had increased by 300% and increased business level was sustained in spite of exit of two major customer organizations’ business.
Studies on structural and biochemical mechanism of resistance in groundnut to Puccinia arachidis
GURURAJ SUNKAD* and SRIKANT KULKARNI
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Mechanism of resistance on the basis of structural and biochemical changes in resistant (GPBD4 and DH- 2), moderately resistant (K-134 and R-8808) and susceptible (KRG-1 and TMV-2) genotypes of groundnut were studied. Resistant and moderately resistant genotypes were characterized by higher cuticular and epidermal cell thickness with lesser epidermal cells, size (length, breadth) and number of stomata and more wax content at later stages of crop growth. Resistant and moderately resistant genotypes recorded more sugars, phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol and protein contents than susceptible ones.
Assessment of pod and haulm yield losses due to rust of groundnut caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. in northern Karnataka
GURURAJ SUNKAD* and SRIKANT KULKARNI
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Studies were conducted to assess the pod and haulm yield losses due to rust of groundnut using hexaconazole 5%EC in susceptible (KRG-1) and moderately resistant (K-13t:) varieties during kharif 2002 and 2003. Comparatively lower disease index with increase in pod and haulm yield and also maximum benefit cost ratio (BCR) were recorded in plots receiving three sprays of hexaconazole in a susceptible cultivar KRG-1and two sprays of the same fungicide in moderately resistant variety K-134 with average pod yield loss of 40.20 and 34.00 percent, respectively. Similarly, the loss in haulm yield (47.04%) was more in KRG-1 than K-134 (32.11).Yield loss models using simple linear regression functions in the form Y=a+bX were developed.
Slow rusting in groundnut genotypes against Puccinia arachidis
GURURAJ SUNKAD* and SRIKANT KULKARNI
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: The slow rusting ability of twentyone groundnut genotypes was studied against Puccinia arachidis. Ten genotypes viz., Dh-22 (Red), Dh-22 (Tan), GPBD-4, K-134, R-8808, R-9214, R-9227, R-2001-1, R2001-2 and R-2001-3 showed longer latent period, lesser number of pustules per unit area, smaller pustules, low amount of uredospores/pustule, lesser percent disease index), rate of infection and area under disease progress curve compared to fast rusting genotypes and were categorized as slow rusters.
A new method of analysing the intracerebral haemorrhage signal intensity on brain MRI images using frequency domain techniques  [PDF]
Supriya S. Shanbhag, Gururaj R. Udupi, Motiram Patil, Krishnaswamy Ranganath
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.61008
Abstract:

Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) has become an established part of neuroimaging and is used to diagnose and characterize several neurologic disorders. Intracerebral Haemorrhage (ICH) is a severe medical condition, which may develop quickly into a life-threatening situation, and thereby requires prompt medical attention. Early and reliable identification of the age of haemorrhage is essential when choosing the correct treatment, and estimating patient’s diagnosis and outcome. Diffusion Weighted (DW) images presents a variation in the image signal intensity characteristics relative to the different stages of ICH. In the present paper, an effort is made to document the variation in the image signal intensity characteristics of ICH at evolving stages, for 30 subjects, using High Frequency Power (HFP) parameter. Results showed that the difference in the HFP values on DW images for the subjects with ICH com- pared to their contralateral normal hemisphere, were highly significant (p < 0.01) in areas of the brain, where there was a high incidence of ICH. The relative in- crease in the image signal intensity HFP values (RHFP) for the subjects with ICH were in the range of (31.0 - 2477.32) times compared to their corresponding HFP values on the contralateral normal hemisphere. The observed RHFP values were elevated in Stage 1 (Hy- peracute: <1 day) of ICH and further progressively decreased in Stage 2 (Acute: 1 - 7 days) and Stage 3 (Late subacute: 7 - 14 days), and eventually reached their minimum in Stage 4 (Chronic: >14 days). There was a negative correlation (r = ?0.81) observed between the RHFP values and the evolving stages of ICH. The results indicate that the quantitative changes in the RHFP values can be assessed to derive information about the stage of ICH, and their adoption in clinical diagnosis and treatment could be helpful and informative.

ABSENCE OF PALMARIS LONGUS MUSCLE-A CASE REPORT
Rajani Balachandra Dhaded,Bhagwan Gangadhar Kulkarni,Gururaj Jahagirdar
Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: This paper describes the absence of palmaris longus muscle. This variation was found during cadaver dissection in the department of Shareera Rachana at Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwar College of Ayurveda & Hospital, Hassan, Karnataka (India). During routine dissection of a male cadaver (about 55 years of age), in the left upper limb authors observed the absence of palmaris longus muscle. Authors have compared their findings with the presence of palmaris longus muscle of other limb and possible variations of palmaris longus muscle reported in the literature. The importance of variation in absence of palmaris longus muscle has been discussed.
Cross reactive cellular immune responses in chickens previously exposed to low pathogenic avian influenza
Kapczynski Darrell R,Liljebjelke Karen,Kulkarni Gururaj,Hunt Henry
BMC Proceedings , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1753-6561-5-s4-s13
Abstract: Background Avian influenza (AI) infection in poultry can result in high morbidity and mortality, and negatively affect international trade. Because most AI vaccines used for poultry are inactivated, our knowledge of immunity against AI is based largely on humoral immune responses. In fact, little is known about cellular immunity following a primary AI infection in poultry, especially regarding cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL’s). Methods In these studies, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-defined (B2/B2) chickens were infected with low pathogenic AI (LPAI) H9N2 and clinical signs of disease were monitored over a two weeks period. Splenic lymphocytes from infected and na ve birds were examined for cross reactivity against homologous and heterologous (H7N2) LPAI by ex vivo stimulation. Cellular immunity was determined by cytotoxic lysis of B2/B2 infected lung target cells and proliferation of T cells following exposure to LPAI. Results Infection with H9N2 resulted in statistically significant weight loss compared to sham-infected birds. Splenic lymphocytes derived from H9N2-infected birds displayed lysis of both homologous (H9N2) and heterologous (H7N2) infected target cells, whereas lymphocytes obtained from sham-infected birds did not. T cell proliferation was determined to be highest when exposed to the homologous virus. Conclusions Taken together these data extend the findings that cellular immunity, including CTL’s, is cross reactive against heterologous isolates of AI and contribute to protection following infection.
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