Abstract:
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by sperm metabolism. While, ROS are required for maturation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, they also modify many peroxidable cellular compounds. There is production of ROS during cryopreservation and frozen spermatozoa are highly sensitive to lipid peroxidation (LPO). Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen bovine sperm preserving both metabolic activity and cellular viability. Manganese (Mn

Abstract:
This paper describes an efficient hardware realization of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm using FPGA. The AES also known as the Rijndael algorithm was selected as a Standard on October 2, 2000 by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Encryption algorithms are used to ensure security of transmission channels.We use AES 128- bit block size and 128-bit cipher key for the implementation on Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. Xilinx ISETM12.4 design tool is used for synthesis of the design.The design is coded using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language(VHDL). In our fully pipelined design, the operational frequency can be upto 347.6MHz and the throughput can be upto 44.5Gbits/s. The proposed fully pipelined AES realization achieves high throughput requirements and can be used for cryptology applications such as data security

Abstract:
Torsion units of group rings have been studied extensively since the 1960s. As association schemes are generalization of groups, it is natural to ask about torsion units of association scheme rings. In this paper we establish some results about torsion units of association scheme rings analogous to basic results for torsion units of group rings. 1. Introduction In this paper we will consider torsion units of rings generated by finite association schemes, which we now define. Let be a finite set of size . Let be a partition of such that every relation in is nonempty. For a relation , there corresponds an adjacency matrix, denoted by , which is the ？？-matrix whose entries are 1 if and 0 otherwise. is an association scheme if(i)is a partition of consisting of nonempty sets,(ii) contains the identity relation ,(iii)for all in the adjoint relation also belongs to ,(iv)for all , , and in there exists a nonnegative integer structure constant such that . A finite association scheme is said to have order and rank . For notation and background on association schemes, see [1]. The structure constants of the scheme make the integer span of its adjacency matrices into a natural -algebra . This is known as the integral adjacency algebra of the scheme , which we will simply refer to as the integral scheme ring. Note that the multiplicative identity of is the identity matrix, which is the adjacency matrix . Similarly we can define the -algebra for any commutative ring with identity, which is known as the adjacency algebra of the scheme over . The complex adjacency algebra is a semisimple algebra with involution defined by . This involution is an antiautomorphism of the algebra . The natural inclusion is the standard representation of (or ). Its character satisfies and for all . Clearly the degree of the standard representation is . It is easy to show using the definition of a scheme that the structure constant if and only if . We write instead of and call the valency of . The linear extension of the valency map defines a degree one algebra representation by We say that is a thin element of when . The thin radical of is the subset consisting of the thin elements of . It follows from the fact that the valency map is a ring homomorphism that is a group. If is a ring with identity, then denotes the group of units of and denotes its subset consisting of torsion units (i.e., units with finite multiplicative order). The subgroup of consisting of units with valency is denoted by . Its subset consists of normalized torsion units. The results of Section 2 show that is often

Abstract:
A rapid, simple and an efficient method for the determination of indoxacarb in cauliflower and soil samples was developed and validated using QuEChERS technique (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe). Recoveries at four different spiking concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg–1 ranged from 87 to 96% were achieved with good repeatability and RSD of 1% - 6%. The average initial deposits of 0.23 and 0.45 mg kg–1 were observed after last application of indoxacarb @ 52.2 and 104.4 g. a.i. ha–1 at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The residues in cauliflower dissipated below its LOQ of 0.01 mg kg–1 after 7 days and its half-life periods were observed to be 1.12 and 1.31 days, respectively, at single and double the dosages. Keeping in view 80 g consumption of cauliflower curds per day for a 55 kg person, theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) of indoxacarb when calculated from maximum residues observed on 0 day samples at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively, were found to be 20.8 and 36.8 µg in comparison to its acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 550 µg, which is quite safe.

Abstract:
A study was undertaken to determine the disappearance trends of quinalphos residues on cabbage under subtropical conditions at Ludhiana. Single application of quinalphos was made @ 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha-1 on cabbage and samples were collected at intervals of 0 (1 h), 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after application. Average initial deposits of quinalphos on cabbage were found to be 0.41 and 0.75 mg kg-1 at single dose and double dosages, respectively. Residues of quinalphos dissipated below determination limit of 0.01 mg kg-1 in 7 and 10 days, respectively at single and double dose. The half-life of quinalphos on cabbage was observed to be 3.02 and 2.70 days for single and double dose, respectively. The study suggested a waiting period of 7 days for safe consumption of cabbage.

Abstract:
an elastic damage model for concrete has been proposed considering damage-induced bimodularity. a scalar damage parameter has been chosen to quantify the damage. expressions for the material compliance tensor components have been derived from the assumed strain and complementary energy functions stated in terms of the principal stresses and strains. incremental constitutive equations have been derived incorporating the elastic behavior due to stress increments as well as stiffness degradation. within the current damage surface, the stiffness of the material with constant damage varies with applied stress variations. during loading beyond the current damage surface, the material experiences stiffness degradation due to increase in extent of damage suffered by it. using the proposed elastic damage model, the material response has been predicted for different load histories.

Abstract:
Oxidative stress (OS) has been considered a major contributory factor to the infertility. Oxidative stress is the result of imbalance between the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body which can lead to sperm damage, deformity, and eventually male infertility. Although high concentrations of the ROS cause sperm pathology (ATP depletion) leading to insufficient axonemal phosphorylation, lipid peroxidation, and loss of motility and viability but, many evidences demonstrate that low and controlled concentrations of these ROS play an important role in sperm physiological processes such as capacitation, acrosome reaction, and signaling processes to ensure fertilization. The supplementation of a cryopreservation extender with antioxidant has been shown to provide a cryoprotective effect on mammalian sperm quality. This paper reviews the impacts of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species on spermatozoa functions, causes of ROS generation, and antioxidative strategies to reduce OS. In addition, we also highlight the emerging concept of utilizing OS as a tool of contraception. 1. Introduction Gametes are susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) attack. When manipulated in vitro during assisted reproductive techniques, these cells run the risk of generating and being exposed to supra-physiological level of ROS [1]. Defective sperm functions are the most prevalent causes of male infertility and a difficult condition to treat [2]. Many environmental, physiological, and genetic factors have been implicated in the poor sperm functions and infertility [3–6]. Thus, it is very important to identify the factors/conditions which affect normal sperm functions. Among various causes, oxidative stress (OS) has been attributed to affect the fertility status and physiology of spermatozoa [7]. The term oxidative stress is generally applied when oxidants outnumber antioxidants [1]. The imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or easily repair the resulting damage is known as oxidative stress [8]. The main destructive aspects of oxidative stress are the production of ROS, which include free radicals and peroxides [9]. The production of ROS by sperm is a normal physiological process, but an imbalance between ROS generation and scavenging activity is detrimental to the sperm and associated with male infertility [10]. Physiological levels of ROS influence and mediate the gametes [11–13] and crucial reproductive processes, such as sperm-oocyte

Abstract:
In vortex motion fluid moves in curve path and the stream lines are curved. When the fluid flows between curved stream line, the centrifugal forces are setup which is counter balanced by pressure forces acting in the radial direction. The vortex motion has two types of curved motion. The first type called free vortex type, the fluid moves due to its own natural effect but energy is not added to fluid when moving in curved path. The second type called forced vortex, in which energy is added to fluid. A two dimensional steady laminar free convective flow of viscous incompressible flow in porous media voids is considered. In this paper the motion of fluid is studied while moving in the porous media. It is studied that the motion of the fluid in the porous media is vortex motion at the low Reynolds’s number, where the motion is laminar motion and the fluid obeys the laws of vortex motion.

Objective: To evaluate the role of chromohysteroscopy in improving diagnostic accuracy of endometrial biopsy in cases of AUB. Design: Cross sectional interventional study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 60 women with AUB in Dept. of Obst. & Gyne at King George Medical University, Lucknow over a period of one year. All cases underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy followed by chromohysteroscopy using 2% methylene blue dye. Hysteroscopic guided biopsy was taken from stained and unstained areas followed by an endometrial aspiration biopsy from whole uterine cavity. The histopathology results of three samples were compared and analyzed in relation with staining pattern and type of AUB. Data analysis was done on SPSS version 15 of windows 2007. Results: Out of 60 cases, 11cases were found to have non hormonal pathology after chromohysterosopic biopsy. Eight (72.72%) cases were diagnosed by stained endometrial tissue, one (9.09%) by unstained tissue and three (27.27%) by endometrial aspiration. The diagnostic ability of stained tissue biopsy was significantly higher (p = 0.006) than unstained biopsy and endometrial aspiration. Conclusion: Chromohysteroscopy is a simple and effective technique for diagnosing endometrial pathology in cases of AUB.