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Disease, Death and Dhandha: Gharwali’s Perspectives on the Impact of AIDS on Devadasi System and the Sex Work in South India  [PDF]
Kaveri Gurav, James Blanchard
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2013.31004

Traditional Devadasi system based sex work (dhandha) is practiced inIndia. The communities that practice this system are affected severely by AIDS epidemic. Through this paper we present the views of gharwalis (brothel madams) regarding the impact of AIDS on the traditional system (Devadasi system) of initiating girls as sex workers (Devadasis) and on the practice of sex work (dhandha) associated with that system. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with twelve gharwalis as a follow-up of a cohort study, which investigated the patterns and determinants of sex worker migration from northern Karnataka to southern Maharashtra, in India. According to gharwalis, the disease (AIDS) consequences; death, fear and stigma affected dhandha operations, changed the attitude of the Devadasi community against the practice of dhandha and the Devadasi system, besides, influenced the community to take actions to stop the practice of dhandha and the Devadasi system. The findings suggest that the interplay between the disease consequences and the community’s response to those consequences contribute to transition dhandha and the Devadasi system. We discuss our findings, describe the transition and the consequent risk enhancing conditions. Finally, highlight the need to address these conditions to reduce Devadasis risk and vulnerability to HIV infection.

Optimal Irrigation Planning and Operation of Multi Objective Reservoir Using Fuzzy Logic  [PDF]
Jyotiba B. Gurav
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.82019
Abstract: In the present study the MOFLP models have been developed for the optimal cropping pattern planning which maximizes the four objectives such as Net Benefits (NB), Crop Production (CP), Employment Generation (EG) and Manure Utilization (MU) under conflicting situation and also, for maximization of Releases for Irrigation (RI) and Releases for Power (RP) simultaneously under uncertainty by considering the fuzziness in the objective functions. The developed models have been applied using the LINGO 13 (Language for Interactive General Optimization) optimization software to the case study of the Jayakwadi Project Stage-II across Sindhphana River, in the State of Maharashtra India. The various constraints have been taken into consideration like sowing area, affinity to crop, labour availability, manure availability, water availability for optimal cropping pattern planning. Similarly constraints to find the optimal reservoir operating policy are releases for power and turbine capacity, irrigation demand, reservoir storage capacity, reservoir storage continuity. The level of satisfaction for a compromised solution of optimal cropping pattern planning for four conflicting objectives under fuzzy environment is worked out to be λ = 0.68. The MOFLP compromised solution provides NB = 1088.46 (Million Rupees), CP = 241003 (Tons), EG = 23.13 (Million Man days) and MU = 111454.70 (Tons) respectively. The compromised solution for optimal operation of multi objective reservoir yields the level of satisfaction (λ) = 0.533 for maximizing the releases for irrigation and power simultaneously by satisfying the constraint of the system under consideration. The compromised solution provides the optimal releases, i.e. RI = 348.670 Mm3 and RP = 234.285 Mm3 respectively.
Fuzzy Approach Based Management Model for Irrigation Planning  [PDF]
D. G. Regulwar, Jyotiba B. Gurav
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.26062
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to develop the irrigation planning model and to apply the same in the form of Multi Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming (MOFLP) approach for crop planning in command area of Jayakwadi Project Stage I, Maharashtra State, India. To formulate MOFLP model various Linear Programming (LP) models are developed to optimize the Net Benefits (NB), Crop/Yield Production (YP), Employment Generation (EG) and Manure Utilization (MU) for which the objective function and constraints are crisp in nature. From the results of these LP models the linear membership function for each individual objective function has been developed. Considering the decision makers satisfaction level (λ), all the four objectives are maximized simultaneously. The results of the MOFLP and LP are compared. The MOFLP model concentrates on satisfying four objectives simultaneously. The present model will be helpful for the decision maker to take decision under conflicting situation when planning for different objectives simultaneously. The degree of satisfaction λ, works out to be 0.58. Compromised solution provides Net Benefits 1503.73 Million Rupees, Crop Production 319563.50 Tons, Employment Generation/Labour Requirement 29.74 Million Man days and Manure Utilization 154506.50 Tons respectively.
Two-Phase Multi Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming Approach for Sustainable Irrigation Planning  [PDF]
D. G. Regulwar, Jyotiba B. Gurav
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.56065

The objective of the present study is to develop the irrigation planning model and to apply the same in the form of Two-Phase Multi Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming (TPMOFLP) approach for crop planning in command area of Jayakwadi Project Stage I, Maharashtra State, India. The development of TPMOFLP model is on the basis of various Linear Programming (LP) models and Multi Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming (MOFLP) models, these models have been applied for maximization of the Net Benefits (NB), Crop production (CP), Employment Generation (EG) and Manure Utilization (MU) respectively. The significant increase in the value of level of satisfaction (λ) has been found from 0.58 to 0.65 by using the TPMOFLP approach as compare to that of MOFLP model based on maxmin approach. The two-phase approach solution provides NB = 1503.56 Million Rupees, CP = 335729.30 Tons, EG = 29.74 Million Man days and MU = 160233.70 Tons respectively. The proposed model will be helpful for the Decision Maker (DM) to take a decision under conflicting situation while planning for different conflicting objectives simultaneously and has potential to find out an integrated irrigation planning with prime consideration for economic, social and environmental issue.

Recent Progress in Preparation of Superhydrophobic Surfaces: A Review  [PDF]
Sanjay Subhash Latthe, Annaso Basavraj Gurav, Chavan Shridhar Maruti, Rajiv Shrikant Vhatkar
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2012.22014
Abstract: In nature, water-repellency (superhydrophobicity) is found, besides in plants, in insects and bird feathers. The booming field of biomimetics allows one to mimic nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which offer desirable properties. Biomimetics means mimicking biology or nature. Inspired from nature, which reveals excellent superhydrophobicity, researchers have recently developed and implemented biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces in a variety of smart and simple ways. Superhydrophobicity is an effect where surface roughness and chemical composition combine to generate unusual water repellent surface, causing water to bounce and roll off the surface. This review article provides the overview of the recent progress (within the last four years) in the synthesis, characterization, theoretical modelling, and applications of superhydrophobic surfaces, with focus on the different techniques used and how they have developed over the years. At last, the difficulties related to implementation of superhydrophobic surfaces in day to day life are discussed. This review can find interesting for students, scientists and industrial companies working especially on superhydrophobic surfaces.
Hypomagnesaemia in paediatric population in an intensive care unit.
Deshmukh C,Rane S,Gurav M
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2000,
Abstract: AIMS: To determine incidence and risk factors for hypomagnesaemia in children admitted in Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, (PICU). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Prospective study was carried out on 80 children admitted in PICU. The patients were clinically assessed for nutritional status, neurological status on Glasgow coma scale, congestive cardiac failure, etc. and relevant biochemical parameters including serum and red cell magnesium levels were done. 25 patients of the same age group admitted in general ward who were not in critical state were included as a control group. RESULTS: 70% of PICU patients had hypomagnesaemia, which was more common in patients on aminoglycosides and diuretics. CONCLUSION: In view of complications of magnesium depletion and benign nature of appropriate magnesium therapy critically ill children should have their magnesium level monitored.
Transfer out Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy from Programme Clinic: A Potential “Leak” in the HIV Treatment Cascade  [PDF]
Manisha Ghate, Sunil Zirpe, Nilam Gurav, Ramesh Paranjape, Bharat Rewari, Raman Gangakhedkar
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2014.44045
Abstract: Background: India has scaled up ART programme very rapidly. Though there are reports on retention of patients in the national programme, data on transfer out patients within the ART centers are scanty in India. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients receiving antiretroviral treatment between January 2006 and July 2013. The patients who were transferred out from the ART center at National AIDS Research Institute in Pune were included in the study. The data on whether they reached the respective ART centers were collected either by making telephonic calls to the patients and/or to the respective ART centers. Results: Of the total 3015 patients ever started on treatment from the ART center, 158 (5.24%) were transferred out to other ART centers. Of these, 123 (77.8%) patients reached other centres and they were “transferred in”. However, 15 (9.5%) did not reach to respective ART centers and information could not be obtained for 20 (12.7%) transferred out patients. The analysis showed that those who were not living with their partners were 4.53 times more likely to not to reach the preferred ART centre after taking transfer [OR, 95% CI: (1.24 - 16.51), p = 0.022]. Conclusion: Our data suggest that significant number of transfer out patients is lost in HIV treatment cascade. Considering the total PLHIV on treatment in the country, this group adds significantly to the burden of lost to follow up patients. It is important to strengthen the system of tracking the transfer out patients in the programme which will help in patching an important leak in the cascade of HIV care.
Murdannia saddlepeakensis (Commelinaceae) – a new species from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
Venkat Ramana,Mayur Nandikar,Rajaram Gurav,Johny Kumar Tagore
PhytoKeys , 2013, DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.20.3611
Abstract: Murdannia saddlepeakense (Commelinaceae), a new species from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, is described and illustrated. The new species is remarkable for its narrowly linear leaves, two fertile stamens, single seeded locule and scorbiculate seeds.
A study of hepatitis E outbreak in rural area of Western Maharashtra
Gurav Y,Kakade S,Kakade R,Kadam Y
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Aim: To study the profile of infective hepatitis cases in the study village. Objective: 1. To study the time, place, and person distribution of hepatitis cases in the study village. 2. To find the source of infection in the study village. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rethare Khurd village (15 km south of Karad, on bank of River Krishna), over a period of September 4, 2004 to December 5, 2004. Participants: All residents of Rethare Khurd village. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, attack rate, Chi-square test were performed. Results: Total 3749 individuals were surveyed and examined, of which 1920 (51.21%) were males and 1829 (48.78%) were females. Total 8 males and 17 females suffered from infective hepatitis. Blood samples collected from 10 patients for liver function test and serological investigation confirmed a hepatitis E outbreak. Maximum numbers of cases were in the age group of 15-30 years. The overall attack rate was 0.66%. The difference in attack rate of hepatitis of both the sexes was not statistically significant ( P > 0.05).Only one ANC had infective hepatitis. Majority of the villagers (61.12%) defecated in the open near the intake well on the bank of River Krishna. Conclusion: This outbreak illustrates the role of the local Government in prevention and control of water borne epidemic and to strengthen the surveillance for water borne diseases in the rural area.
Health and Socio-Demographic Profile of Transport Workers
Kartikeyan S.,Gurav R.,Joshi S.,Wayal Reshma
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2004,
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