Abstract:
Dissipation may cause two initially entangled qubits to evolve into a separable state in a finite time. This behavior is called entanglement sudden death (ESD). We study to what extent quantum error correction can combat ESD. We find that in some cases quantum error correction can delay entanglement sudden death but in other cases quantum error correction may cause ESD for states that otherwise do not suffer from it. Our analysis also shows that fidelity may not be the best measure to compare the efficiency of different error correction codes since the fidelity is not directly coupled to a state's remaining entanglement.

Abstract:
We study the possibility of preventing finite-time disentanglement caused by dissipation by making use of "non-local quantum error correction. This is made in comparison of previous results, where was shown that "local" quantum error correction can delay disentanglement, but can also cause entanglement sudden death when is not originally present.

Abstract:
We propose two different implementations of an asymmetric two-output probabilistic quantum processor, which can implement a restricted set of one-qubit operations. One of them is constructed by combining asymmetric telecloning with a quantum gate array. We analyze the efficiency of this processor by evaluating the fidelities between the desired operation and the one generated by the processor and show that the two output states are the same as the ones produced by the optimal universal asymmetric Pauli cloning machine. The schemes require only local operations and classical communication, they have the advantage of transmitting the two output states directly to two spatially separated receivers but they have a success probability of 1/2. We show further that we can perform the same one-qubit operation with unity probability at the cost of using nonlocal operations. We finally generalize the two schemes for D-level systems and find that the local ones are successful with a probability of 1/D and the nonlocal generalized scheme is always successful.

Abstract:
We examine the efficiency of pure, nondegenerate quantum-error correction-codes for Pauli channels. Specifically, we investigate if correction of multiple errors in a block is more efficient than using a code that only corrects one error per block. Block coding with multiple-error correction cannot increase the efficiency when the qubit error-probability is below a certain value and the code size fixed. More surprisingly, existing multiple-error correction codes with a code length equal or less than 256 qubits have lower efficiency than the optimal single-error correcting codes for any value of the qubit error-probability. We also investigate how efficient various proposed nondegenerate single-error correcting codes are compared to the limit set by the code redundancy and by the necessary conditions for hypothetically existing nondegenerate codes. We find that existing codes are close to optimal.

Abstract:
We discuss a real-valued expansion of any Hermitian operator defined in a Hilbert space of finite dimension N, where N is a prime number, or an integer power of a prime. The expansion has a direct interpretation in terms of the operator expectation values for a set of complementary bases. The expansion can be said to be the complement of the discrete Wigner function. We expect the expansion to be of use in quantum information applications since qubits typically are represented by a discrete, and finite-dimensional physical system of dimension N=2^p, where p is the number of qubits involved. As a particular example we use the expansion to prove that an intermediate measurement basis (a Breidbart basis) cannot be found if the Hilbert space dimension is 3 or 4.

Abstract:
We analyse interaction-free measurements on classical and quantum objects. We show the transition from a classical interaction free measurement to a quantum non-demolition measurement of atom number, and discuss the mechanism of the enforcement of complementarity in atom interferometric interaction-free measurements.

Abstract:
We present a new derivation of the unpolarized quantum states of light, whose general form was first derived by Prakash and Chandra [Phys. Rev. A 4, 796 (1971)]. Our derivation makes use of some basic group theory, is straightforward, and offers some new insights.

Abstract:
We have made the first experimental demonstration of the simultaneous minimum uncertainty product between two complementary observables for a two-state system (a qubit). A partially entangled two-photon state was used to perform such measurements. Each of the photons carries (partial) information of the initial state thus leaving a room for measurements of two complementary observables on every member in an ensemble.

Abstract:
We have fabricated and studied the photoluminescence from microdisks containing single, selected self-assembled quantum dots. Using two electron beam lithography exposures and a two-step selective wet etching process, the dots were positioned at the microdisks edges with sub-micron precision. The selection and positioning of quantum dots enables an optimum coupling of the dot emission to the microdisks whispering modes.