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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2343 matches for " Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz "
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MOCVD growth mechanisms of ZnO nanorods
Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz,Pierre-Henri Jouneau,Guy Feuillet,Robin Thierry,Milan Rosina,Pierre Ferret
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/209/1/012034
Abstract: ZnO is a promising material for the fabrication of light emitting devices. One approach to achieve this goal is to use ZnO nanorods because of their expected high crystalline and optical quality. Catalyst free growth of nanorods by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) was carried out on (0001) sapphire substrates. Arrays of well-aligned, vertical nanorods were obtained with uniform lengths and diameters. A thin wetting layer in epitaxy with the sapphire substrate is formed first, followed by pyramids and nanorods. The nucleation of nanorods occurs either directly at the interface, or later on top of some of the pyramids, suggesting various nucleation mechanisms. It is shown that crystal polarity plays a critical role in the growth mechanism with nanorods of Zn polarity and their surrounding pyramids with O polarity. A growth mechanism is proposed to explain that most threading dislocations lie in the wetting layer, with only a few in the pyramids and none in the nanorods.
Structural recovery of ion implanted ZnO nanowires
Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz,Fabrice Donatini,Robin Thierry,Pierre-Henri Jouneau,Pierre Ferret,Guy Feuillet
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4704697
Abstract: Ion implantation is an interesting method to dope semiconducting materials such as zinc oxide provided that the implantation-induced defects can be subsequently removed. Nitrogen implantation followed by anneals under O2 were carried out on zinc oxide nanowires in the same conditions as in a previous study on bulk ZnO [J. Appl.Phys. 109, 023513 (2011)], allowing a direct comparison of the defect recovery mechanisms. Transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence were carried out to assess the effects of nitrogen implantation and of subsequent anneals on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanowires. Defect recovery is shown to be more effective in nanowires compared with bulk material due to the proximity of free surfaces. Nevertheless, the optical emission of implanted and annealed nanowires deteriorated compared to as-grown nanowires, as also observed for unimplanted and annealed nanowires. This is tentatively attributed to the dissociation of excitons in the space charge region induced by O2 adsorption on the nanowire surface.
Strain relaxation by dislocation glide in ZnO/ZnMgO core-shell nanowires
Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz,Robin Thierry,Pierre-Henri Jouneau,Pierre Ferret,Guy Feuillet
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4704927
Abstract: Plastic relaxation of the misfit stress in core-shell semi-conducting nanowires can lead to structural defects, detrimental to applications. Core-shell Zn{0.7}Mg{0.3}O/ZnO quantum well heterostructures were deposited on ZnO nanowires. Strain along the a and c axes of the wurtzite structure is relaxed through the glide of dislocation half-loops from the free surfaces, within pyramidal and prismatic planes. Some half-loops are closed up in the barriers to accommodate the misfit at two consecutive interfaces of the quantum well stack. Dislocations are also observed within the nanowire core: contrary to two-dimensional structures, both the core and the shell can be plastically relaxed.
Intrinsic degradation mechanism of nearly lattice-matched InAlN layers grown on GaN substrates
Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz,Gatien Cosendey,Jean-Fran?ois Carlin,Rapha?l Butté,Nicolas Grandjean
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4790424
Abstract: Thanks to its high refractive index contrast, band gap and polarization mismatch compared to GaN, In0.17Al0.83N layers lattice-matched to GaN are an attractive solution for applications such as distributed Bragg reflectors, ultraviolet light-emitting diodes, or high electron mobility transistors. In order to study the structural degradation mechanism of InAlN layers with increasing thickness, we performed metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of InAlN layers of thicknesses ranging from 2 to 500 nm, on free-standing (0001) GaN substrates with a low density of threading dislocations, for In compositions of 13.5% (layers under tensile strain), and 19.7% (layers under compressive strain). In both cases, a surface morphology with hillocks is initially observed, followed by the appearance of V-defects. We propose that those hillocks arise due to kinetic roughening, and that V-defects subsequently appear beyond a critical hillock size. It is seen that the critical thickness for the appearance of V-defects increases together with the surface diffusion length either by increasing the temperature or the In flux because of a surfactant effect. In thick InAlN layers, a better (worse) In incorporation occurring on the concave (convex) shape surfaces of the V-defects is observed leading to a top phase-separated InAlN layer lying on the initial homogeneous InAlN layer after V-defects coalescence. It is suggested that similar mechanisms could be responsible for the degradation of thick InGaN layers.
Core-shell multi-quantum wells in ZnO / ZnMgO nanowires with high optical efficiency at room temperature
Robin Thierry,Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz,Pierre-Henri Jouneau,Pierre Ferret,Guy Feuillet
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/23/8/085705
Abstract: Nanowire-based light-emitting devices require multi-quantum well heterostructures with high room temperature optical efficiencies. We demonstrate that such efficiencies can be attained through the use of ZnO/Zn(1-x)MgxO core shell quantum well heterostructures grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Varying the barrier Mg concentration from x=0.15 to x=0.3 leads to the formation of misfit induced dislocations in the multi quantum wells. Correlatively, temperature dependant photoluminescence reveals that the radial well luminescence intensity decreases much less rapidly with increasing temperature for the lower Mg concentration. Indeed, about 54% of the 10K intensity is retained at room temperature with x=0.15, against 2% with x=0.30. Those results open the way to the realization of high optical efficiency nanowire-based light emitting diodes.
Compared growth mechanisms of Zn-polar ZnO nanowires on O-polar ZnO and on sapphire
Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz,Robin Thierry,Pierre-Henri Jouneau,Pierre Ferret,Guy Feuillet
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/23/12/125702
Abstract: Controlling the growth of zinc oxide nanowires is necessary to optimize the performances of nanowire-based devices such as photovoltaic solar cells, nano-generators, or light-emitting diodes. In this view, we investigate the nucleation and growth mechanisms of ZnO nanowires grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy either on O-polar ZnO or on sapphire substrates. Whatever the substrate, ZnO nanowires are Zn-polar, as demonstrated by convergent beam electron diffraction. For growth on O-polar ZnO substrate, the nanowires are found to sit on O-polar pyramids. As growth proceeds, the inversion domain boundary moves up in order to remain at the top of the O-polar pyramids. For growth on sapphire substrates, the nanowires may also originate from the sapphire / ZnO interface. The presence of atomic steps and the non-polar character of sapphire could be the cause of the Zn-polar crystal nucleation on sapphire, whereas it is proposed that the segregation of aluminum impurities could account for the nucleation of inverted domains for growth on O-polar ZnO.
Formation and annealing of dislocation loops induced by nitrogen implantation of ZnO
Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz,Patrice Gergaud,Pascal Marotel,Stéphane Brochen,Pierre-Henri Jouneau,Guy Feuillet
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3537917
Abstract: Although zinc oxide is a promising material for the fabrication of short wavelength optoelectronic devices, p-type doping is a step that remains challenging for the realization of diodes. Out of equilibrium methods such as ion implantation are expected to dope ZnO successfully provided that the non-radiative defects introduced by implantation can be annealed out. In this study, ZnO substrates are implanted with nitrogen ions, and the extended defects induced by implantation are studied by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after annealing at 900^{\circ}C. Before annealing, these defects are identified to be dislocation loops lying either in basal planes in high N concentration regions, or in prismatic planes in low N concentration regions, together with linear dislocations. An uniaxial deformation of 0.4% along the c axis, caused by the predominant basal loops, is measured by XRD in the implanted layer. After annealing, prismatic loops disappear while the density of basal loops decreases and their diameter increases. Moreover, dislocation loops disappear completely from the sub-surface region. XRD measurements show a residual deformation of only 0.05% in the implanted and annealed layer. The fact that basal loops are favoured against prismatic ones at high N concentration or high temperature is attributed to a lower stacking fault energy in these conditions. The coalescence of loops and their disappearance in the sub-surface region are ascribed to point defect diffusion. Finally, the electrical and optical properties of nitrogen-implanted ZnO are correlated with the observed structural features.
Wafer-scale selective area growth of GaN hexagonal prismatic nanostructures on c-sapphire substrate
Xiao Jun Chen,Jun-Seo Hwang,Guillaume Perillat-Merceroz,Stefan Landis,Brigitte Martin,Daniel Le Si Dang,Jo?l Eymery,Christophe Durand
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2011.03.007
Abstract: Selective area growth of GaN nanostructures has been performed on full 2" c-sapphire substrates using Si3N4 mask patterned by nanoimprint lithography (array of 400 nm diameter circular holes). A new process has been developed to improve the homogeneity of the nucleation selectivity of c-oriented hexagonal prismatic nanostructures at high temperature (1040\circ C). It consists of an initial GaN nucleation step at 950 \circ C followed by ammonia annealing before high temperature growth. Structural analyses show that GaN nanostructures are grown in epitaxy with c-sapphire with lateral overgrowths on the mask. Strain and dislocations are observed at the interface due to the large GaN/sapphire lattice mismatch in contrast with the high quality of the relaxed crystals in the lateral overgrowth area. A cathodoluminescence study as a function of the GaN nanostructure size confirms these observations: the lateral overgrowth of GaN nanostructures has a low defect density and exhibits a stronger near band edge (NBE) emission than the crystal in direct epitaxy with sapphire. The shift of the NBE positions versus nanostructure size can be mainly attributed to a combination of compressive strain and silicon doping coming from surface mask diffusion.
Theoretical and Numerical Comparison of Limit Point Bifurcation and Maximum Force Criteria. Application to the Prediction of Diffuse Necking  [PDF]
Guillaume Altmeyer
Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Material Science (MNSMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mnsms.2013.31006
Abstract: A large number of criteria has been developed to predict material instabilities, but their choice is limited by the lack of existing comparison of their theoretical basis and application domains. To overcome this limitation, a theoretical and numerical comparison of two major models used to predict diffuse necking is present in this paper. Limit Point Bifurcation criterion is first introduced. An original formulation of the Maximum Force Criterion (MFC), taking into account the effects of damage and isotropic and kinematic hardenings, is then proposed. Strong connections are shown between them by comparing their theoretical basis. Numerical Forming Limit Diagrams at diffuse necking obtained with these criteria for different metallic materials are given. They illustrate the theoretical link and similar predictions are shown for both models.
Non-simplifying Graph Rewriting Termination
Guillaume Bonfante,Bruno Guillaume
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.110.3
Abstract: So far, a very large amount of work in Natural Language Processing (NLP) rely on trees as the core mathematical structure to represent linguistic informations (e.g. in Chomsky's work). However, some linguistic phenomena do not cope properly with trees. In a former paper, we showed the benefit of encoding linguistic structures by graphs and of using graph rewriting rules to compute on those structures. Justified by some linguistic considerations, graph rewriting is characterized by two features: first, there is no node creation along computations and second, there are non-local edge modifications. Under these hypotheses, we show that uniform termination is undecidable and that non-uniform termination is decidable. We describe two termination techniques based on weights and we give complexity bound on the derivation length for these rewriting system.
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