Abstract:
We define an extension of the polynomial calculus on a W*-probability space by introducing an abstract algebra which contains polynomials. This extension allows us to define transition operators for additive and multiplicative free convolution. It also permits us to characterize the free Segal-Bargmann transform and the free Hall transform introduced by Biane, in a manner which is closer to classical definitions. Finally, we use this extension of polynomial calculus to prove two asymptotic results on random matrices: the convergence for each fixed time, as N tends to infinity, of the *-distribution of the Brownian motion on the linear group GL_N(C) to the *-distribution of a free multiplicative circular Brownian motion, and the convergence of the classical Hall transform on U(N) to the free Hall transform.

Abstract:
This paper investigates homomorphisms \`a la Bercovici-Pata between additive and multiplicative convolutions. We also consider their matricial versions which are associated with measures on the space of Hermitian matrices and on the unitary group. The previous results combined with a matricial model of Benaych-Georges and Cabanal-Duvillard allows us to define and study the large N limit of a new matricial model on the unitary group for free multiplicative L\'evy processes.

Abstract:
We consider a two parameter family of unitarily invariant diffusion processes on the general linear group $\mathbb{GL}_N$ of $N\times N$ invertible matrices, that includes the standard Brownian motion as well as the usual unitary Brownian motion as special cases. We prove that all such processes have Gaussian fluctuations in high dimension with error of order $O(1/N)$; this is in terms of the finite dimensional distributions of the process under a large class of test functions known as trace polynomials. We give an explicit characterization of the covariance of the Gaussian fluctuation field, which can be described in terms of a fixed functional of three freely independent free multiplicative Brownian motions. These results generalize earlier work of L\'evy and Ma\"ida, and Diaconis and Evans, on unitary groups. Our approach is geometric, rather than combinatorial.

Abstract:
We study states on the universal noncommutative *-algebra generated by the coefficients of a unitary matrix, or equivalently states on the unitary dual group. Its structure of dual group in the sense of Voiculescu allows to define five natural convolutions. We prove that there exists no Haar state for those convolutions. However, we prove that there exists a weaker form of absorbing state, that we call Haar trace, for the free and the tensor convolutions. We show that the free Haar trace is the limit in distribution of the blocks of a Haar unitary matrix when the dimension tends to infinity. Finally, we study a particular class of free L\'evy processes on the unitary dual group which are also the limit of the blocks of random matrices on the classical unitary group when the dimension tends to infinity.

Abstract:
Precession driven flows are found in any rotating container filled with liquid, when the rotation axis itself rotates about a secondary axis that is fixed in an inertial frame of reference. Because of its relevance for planetary fluid layers, many works consider spheroidal containers, where the uniform vorticity component of the bulk flow is reliably given by the well-known equations obtained by Busse in 1968. So far however, no analytical result on the solutions is available. Moreover, the cases where multiple flows can coexist have not been investigated in details since their discovery by Noir et al. (2003). In this work, we aim at deriving analytical results on the solutions, aiming in particular at, first estimating the ranges of parameters where multiple solutions exist, and second studying quantitatively their stability. Using the models recently proposed by Noir \& C{\'e}bron (2013), which are more generic in the inviscid limit than the equations of Busse, we analytically describe these solutions, their conditions of existence, and their stability in a systematic manner. We then successfully compare these analytical results with the theory of Busse (1968). Dynamical model equations are finally proposed to investigate the stability of the solutions, which allows to describe the bifurcation of the unstable flow solution. We also report for the first time the possibility that time-dependent multiple flows can coexist in precessing triaxial ellipsoids. Numerical integrations of the algebraic and differential equations have been efficiently performed with the dedicated script FLIPPER (supplementary material).

Abstract:
We study the flow forced by precession in rigid non-axisymmetric ellipsoidal containers. To do so, we revisit the inviscid and viscous analytical models that have been previously developed for the spheroidal geometry by, respectively, Poincar\'e (Bull. Astronomique, vol. XXVIII, 1910, pp. 1-36) and Busse (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 33, 1968, pp. 739-751), and we report the first numerical simulations of flows in such a geometry. In strong contrast with axisymmetric spheroids, where the forced flow is systematically stationary in the precessing frame, we show that the forced flow is unsteady and periodic. Comparisons of the numerical simulations with the proposed theoretical model show excellent agreement for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric containers. Finally, since the studied configuration corresponds to a tidally locked celestial body such as the Earth's Moon, we use our model to investigate the challenging but planetary-relevant limit of very small Ekman numbers and the particular case of our Moon.

Abstract:
Large-scale planetary or stellar magnetic fields generated by a dynamo effect are mostly attributed to flows forced by buoyancy forces in electrically conducting fluid layers. However, these large-scale fields may also be controlled by tides, as previously suggested for the star $\tau$-boo, Mars or the Early Moon. By simulating a small local patch of a rotating fluid, \cite{Barker2014} have recently shown that tides can drive small-scale dynamos by exciting a hydrodynamic instability, the so-called elliptical (or tidal) instability. By performing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a rotating spherical fluid body, we investigate if this instability can also drive the observed large-scale magnetic fields. We are thus interested by the dynamo threshold and the generated magnetic field in order to test if such a mechanism is relevant for planets and stars. Rather than solving the problem in a geometry deformed by tides, we consider a spherical fluid body and add a body force to mimic the tidal deformation in the bulk of the fluid. This allows us to use an efficient spectral code to solve the magnetohydrodynamic problem. We first compare the hydrodynamic results with theoretical asymptotic results, and numerical results obtained in a truely deformed ellipsoid, which confirms the presence of the elliptical instability. We then perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and investigate the dynamo capability of the flow. Kinematic and self-consistent dynamos are finally simulated, showing that the elliptical instability is capable of generating dipole dominated large-scale magnetic field in global simulations of a fluid rotating sphere.

Abstract:
When they first appear in the HR diagram, young stars rotate at a mere 10\% of their break-up velocity. They must have lost most of the angular momentum initially contained in the parental cloud, the so-called angular momentum problem. We investigate here a new mechanism by which large amounts of angular momentum might be shed from young stellar systems, thus yielding slowly rotating young stars. Assuming that planets promptly form in circumstellar disks and rapidly migrate close to the central star, we investigate how the tidal and magnetic interactions between the protostar, its close-in planet(s), and the inner circumstellar disk can efficiently remove angular momentum from the central object. We find that neither the tidal torque nor the variety of magnetic torques acting between the star and the embedded planet are able to counteract the spin up torques due to accretion and contraction. Indeed, the former are orders of magnitude weaker than the latter beyond the corotation radius and are thus unable to prevent the young star from spinning up. We conclude that star-planet interaction in the early phases of stellar evolution does not appear as a viable alternative to magnetic star-disk coupling to understand the origin of the low angular momentum content of young stars.

Abstract:
We consider rotating flows in non-axisymmetric enclosures that are driven by libration, i.e. by a small periodic modulation of the rotation rate. Thanks to its simplicity, this model is relevant to various contexts, from industrial containers (with small oscillations of the rotation rate) to fluid layers of terrestial planets (with length-of-day variations). Assuming a multipolar $n$-fold boundary deformation, we first obtain the two-dimensional basic flow. We then perform a short-wavelength local stability analysis of the basic flow, showing that an instability may occur in three dimensions. We christen it the Libration Driven Multipolar Instability (LDMI). The growth rates of the LDMI are computed by a Floquet analysis in a systematic way, and compared to analytical expressions obtained by perturbation methods. We then focus on the simplest geometry allowing the LDMI, a librating deformed cylinder. To take into account viscous and confinement effects, we perform a global stability analysis, which shows that the LDMI results from a parametric resonance of inertial modes. Performing numerical simulations of this librating cylinder, we confirm that the basic flow is indeed established and report the first numerical evidence of the LDMI. Numerical results, in excellent agreement with the stability results, are used to explore the non-linear regime of the instability (amplitude and viscous dissipation of the driven flow). We finally provide an example of LDMI in a deformed spherical container to show that the instability mechanism is generic. Our results show that the previously studied libration driven elliptical instability simply corresponds to the particular case $n=2$ of a wider class of instabilities. Summarizing, this work shows that any oscillating non-axisymmetric container in rotation may excite intermittent, space-filling LDMI flows, and this instability should thus be easy to observe experimentally.

Abstract:
Motivated by understanding the liquid core dynamics of tidally deformed planets and moons, we present a study of incompressible flow driven by latitudinal libration within rigid triaxial ellipsoids. We first derive a laminar solution for the inviscid equations of motion under the assumption of uniform vorticity flow. This solution exhibits a res- onance if the libration frequency matches the frequency of the spin-over inertial mode. Furthermore, we extend our model by introducing a reduced model of the effect of viscous Ekman layers in the limit of low Ekman number (Noir and C\`ebron 2013). This theoretical approach is consistent with the results of Chan et al. (2011) and Zhang et al. (2012) for spheroidal geometries. Our results are validated against systematic three-dimensional numerical simulations. In the second part of the paper, we present the first linear sta- bility analysis of this uniform vorticity flow. To this end, we adopt different methods (Lifschitz and Hameiri 1991; Gledzer and Ponomarev 1977) that allow to deduce upper and lower bounds for the growth rate of an instability. Our analysis shows that the uniform vorticity base flow is prone to inertial instabilities caused by a parametric resonance mechanism. This is confirmed by a set of direct numerical simulations. Applying our results to planetary settings, we find that neither a spin-over resonance nor an inertial instability can exist within the liquid core of the Moon, Io and Mercury.