Abstract:
For many years physicists have been engaged on research around the globe in fields such as the unification of gravita- tion and electromagnetism, and an explanation for dark matter and dark energy, etc., but so far to little avail. One is left with the impression that something might be fundamentally wrong with the premises underlying the doctrine of physics applicable today, which is preventing a solution of these problems from being found. As a possible cause, the author proposes that the gravitation of the photons is not so negligible that it can be completely ignored (although this assumption does not accord with the current state of physics). Departing therefore from the accepted doctrine, he assumes that gravitation might possess a hitherto unknown important influence on electromagnetism. This paper then examines the consequences of this assumption on physics. A precise analysis will lead to the insight that the gravitation of a photon is as dynamic as the photon itself, and therefore must be taken into account with all associated physical considerations. The hitherto accepted case of a static gravitation of photons, on the other hand, can be totally neglected, as it does not exist for photons. Of key importance is the statement that the gravitation of photons is produced by gravitational quanta, and thus appears in quantised form. It is therefore necessary to rethink the physics of photons. This leads to a number of other interesting insights, as will be borne out in the further course of this paper. In the event that the assumption of the influence of gravitation on electromagnetism turns out to be correct, then this would represent a major step in unravelling the still largely unknown nature of gravitation and its significance in the natural events of the microcosmos; furtheron it would be an important contribution regarding a “New Physics” and a “New Cosmology”.

In order to explore the nature of photons, no doubts can be allowed to
exist concerning the “physics of photons”. While static gravitation plays no
role in the physics of photons, this paper will show that the previously
unknown nonbaryonic dynamic gravitation of photons determines not only the
external physical behaviour of photons but also, in particular, the hitherto
unknown physical events occurring within the photons themselves. For this
reason, the paper places particular emphasis on dynamic gravitation as a new
hitherto unknown physical quantity. Moreover the new type of gravitation
postulated here also provides a plausible explanation of the mysterious
nonbaryonic dark matter. As no generally accepted scientific explanation of the
creation and essence of dark matter exists to date, it is to be anticipated
that the nonbaryonic dynamic gravitation of photons is of general interest to
physicists as well as cosmologists and may serve to initiate a general debate
among them. Furthermore, this paper will also show that there exists a close
mutual relationship between electrodynamics <> dynamic gravitation
<> static gravitation <> electrostatics <> electrodynamics
(refer to paragraph 4). Due to the fact that the insights into the relationship
between photons and their dynamic gravitation have not been described by any
other author to date, there exists only a few references that I can cite in
support of my paper.

The
cosmic ray energy spectrum is calculated assuming that cosmic rays are
generated by astrophysical objects provided by magnetospheres with a dipole
magnetic field. With simple geometric considerations, the energy spectrum E^{-2.5} is obtained, independently on the particle
species.

Although the gravitational constant (G)
does not explicitly occur in the Maxwell Wave Equations, this paper will show
that G is indeed implicitly contained
in them. The logical consequence hereby is that electromagnetic radiation is
associated with dynamic gravitation and not—as assumed in Einstein’s Special Theory of
Relativity—with
“static” gravitation, dynamic gravitation being at the time unknown. According
to the Maxwell Wave Equations, gravitation experiences the same dynamic (speed
of light c) as electromagnetic
radiation and must therefore also be of a quantum nature. There must exist an
equal number of gravitational quanta as there are photons. Since photons do not
possess a baryonic rest mass but only a relativistic mass, this mass must be
nonbaryonic in nature—precisely as their dynamic gravitation.

Abstract:
The actual world model, the “Standard Model of Cosmology” (SMC), which
dates back to the 1950s, no longer corresponds to the latest state of knowledge
on the cosmos. By way of example, the assumption made in the SMC that the
expansion of the cosmos is continually being reduced due to the effect of the
gravitation exerted on all the matter in the universe is now contradicted by
recent measurements. The reason for the expansion of cosmic space in accordance
with Hubble’s Law is not physically explained by the SMC but merely stated as a
fact. Another example is provided by the “dark phenomena”, which make up by far
the greatest part of the energy of the cosmos, and exert a dominant influence
on its behaviour. In spite of intensive research over the decades to provide
answers to these as well as other open issues in cosmology, no satisfactory and
plausible answers have hitherto been found. It is indeed time to propose an
alternative cosmological world model to the SMC in the light of the latest
insights on the universe.

Abstract:
The role agronomy plays in the management of phytotechnologies is a significant example of the answers that the agrosciences can offer to the issues of society in the field of Green Remediation. This paper reports a study designed to test how the principles of classical plant growth analysis can be used in the field of phytoremediation. In the framework of a phytoremediation field trial set up in Torviscosa (Udine, Italy), Sorghum bicolor was grown receiving mineral fertilization, organic amendment, or neither as control. Crop growth was examined following classical functional growth analysis. Leaf area index (LAI), relative growth-rate (RGR) and shoot to weight ratio (SWR) showed how plants behaved in response to the treatments. Sorghum bicolor showed a poor potential for phytoremediation under our experimental conditions. However, some parameters of classical crop growth analysis resulted potentially useful also in the field of phytoremediation.

Aims: This study compares the WHO (2007) and the National Health Examination Survey (NHANES III) reference intervals and investigates the differences when applied on a Canadian cohort of older children and adolescents. Methods: We calculated height, weight and BMI z-scores of 4375 consecutive patients (1993 female, 45.6%) aged 5 - 20 years attending outpatient clinics at a single tertiary care centre using reference data of the latest NHANES (III) survey and the WHO (2007) growth charts. To address age dependency, data was stratified into age groups. Results: Using the NHANES III reference intervals, medians of weight (+0.46), height (+0.29) and BMI z-scores (+0.46) were significantly non-zero. The WHO (2007) growth charts yielded medians of +2.05, +0.32, +0.53 for weight, height and BMI z-scores respectively, all significantly non-zero. When comparing both growth charts, Canadian children had significantly different weight and BMI z-scores (p < 0.0001) with WHO growth charts whereas height z-score did not differ. Obesity rates (BMI z-score > 95th percentile) doubled from 8.6% to 16.0%. A significant age dependency was observed with higher WHO (2007) weight z-scores (>7 years) and higher BMI z-scores (7 to 13 years) and no significant difference was observed for height z-scores across all age groups. Gender differences were observed for weight z-scores (>9 years) and BMI (males: 9 - 11 years, p = 0.0118; 11 - 13 years, p = 0.0069) whereas no significant difference was found in height z-scores across all age groups. Conclusion: Our results reveal substantial differences between both reference populations and thus interpretation needs be done with caution, especially when labelling results as abnormal.

Abstract:
El presente artículo analiza el surgimiento de la acreditación de carreras y de programas en Costa Rica en el marco de una redefinición del sistema educativo superior dentro de la coexistencia de dos estilos de desarrollo. Se contextualiza a qué responde el surgimiento de la acreditación en Costa Rica., cuál es su vinculación con las nuevas tendencias en el estilo de desarrollo nacional pos ajuste y cuál es su función en la configuración del sistema de educación superior costarricense. Según la autora, la acreditación responde directamente a la lógica de un Estado que delega, en otras instancias, su rol ejecutor e interventor directo, mientras que las fuerzas del mercado se fortalecen y definen aspectos importantes de la organización y oferta del sistema de educación superior. This article analyzes the arising of accreditation of careers and programs in Costa Rica on the frame of the Higher education system re-definition, and in a context where two development styles coexist. It is contextualize what does the arise of accreditation in Costa Rica respond to, which is its link to the tendencies of national development style, and which is its function in the configuration of the Costa Rican higher education system. According to the author, the accreditation responds directly to the logic of a State that delegates its roll as executive and direct supervisory body to other institutions while the national forces strengthen, and define important aspects of the organization and supply of the higher education system.

Abstract:
The production in the siderurgy and foundry industry has changed considerably in the past years. Despite the new technologies and process, the use of magnesia carbon refractory remains constant. Namely the magnesia carbon refractory is widely used due low-priced cost, high refractivity, excellent corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, low thermal expansion, high slag penetration resistance and low wettability. The main disadvantages of use magnesia carbon refractories are the high carbon oxidation susceptibility and the formation CO and CO_{2} gases. As a result, tonne of CO and CO_{2} are expelled to the atmosphere. The use of open cell carbon-foam magnesia composite for refractory application can offer a substitute for the traditional refractory material since the high carbon content can be minored and the low mechanical strength and poor oxidation resistance of these materials can be improved.

Abstract:
It is the purpose of this paper to give a simple proof of the fact that solutions of the KdV equation can be approximated via solutions of the NLS equation. The proof is based on an elimination of the quadratic terms of the KdV equation via the Miura transformation. 1. Introduction The NLS equation describes slow modulations in time and space of an oscillating and advancing spatially localized wave packet. There exist various approximation results, cf. [1–4] showing that the NLS equation makes correct predictions of the behavior of the original system. Systems with quadratic nonlinearities and zero eigenvalues at the wave number turn out to be rather difficult for the proof of such approximation results, cf. [5, 6]. The water wave problem falls into this class. Very recently, this long outstanding problem [7] has been solved [8] for the water wave problem in case of no surface tension and infinite depth by using special properties of this problem. Another equation which falls into this class is the KdV equation. The connection between the KdV and the NLS equation has been investigated already for a long time, cf. [9]. In [10, 11] the NLS equation has been derived as a modulation equation for the KdV equation, and its inverse scattering scheme has been related to the one of the KdV equation. It is the purpose of this paper to give a simple proof of the fact that solutions of the KdV equation can be approximated via solutions of the NLS equation. Beyond things this has been shown by numerical experiments in [12]. An analytical approximation result has been given by a rather complicated proof in [5] with a small correction explained in [6]. The much simpler proof of this fact presented here is based on an elimination of the quadratic terms of the KdV equation via the Miura transformation. Following [13] the KdV equation can be transferred with the help of the Miura transformation via direct substitution into the mKdV equation In order to derive the NLS equation we make an ansatz for the solutions of (1.4), where is a small perturbation paramater. Equating the coefficient at to zero yields the linear dispersion relation . At we find the linear group velocity and at we find that the complex-valued amplitude satisfies the NLS equation 2. Approximation of the mKdV Equation via the NLS Equation Our first approximation result is as follows. Theorem 2.1. Fix and let be a solution of the NLS equation (1.6). Then there exist and such that for all there are solutions of the mKdV equation (1.4) such that Proof. The error function defined by satisfies with where . In