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Does Gravitation Have an Influence on Electromagnetism?  [PDF]
Guido Zbiral
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.329158
Abstract: For many years physicists have been engaged on research around the globe in fields such as the unification of gravita- tion and electromagnetism, and an explanation for dark matter and dark energy, etc., but so far to little avail. One is left with the impression that something might be fundamentally wrong with the premises underlying the doctrine of physics applicable today, which is preventing a solution of these problems from being found. As a possible cause, the author proposes that the gravitation of the photons is not so negligible that it can be completely ignored (although this assumption does not accord with the current state of physics). Departing therefore from the accepted doctrine, he assumes that gravitation might possess a hitherto unknown important influence on electromagnetism. This paper then examines the consequences of this assumption on physics. A precise analysis will lead to the insight that the gravitation of a photon is as dynamic as the photon itself, and therefore must be taken into account with all associated physical considerations. The hitherto accepted case of a static gravitation of photons, on the other hand, can be totally neglected, as it does not exist for photons. Of key importance is the statement that the gravitation of photons is produced by gravitational quanta, and thus appears in quantised form. It is therefore necessary to rethink the physics of photons. This leads to a number of other interesting insights, as will be borne out in the further course of this paper. In the event that the assumption of the influence of gravitation on electromagnetism turns out to be correct, then this would represent a major step in unravelling the still largely unknown nature of gravitation and its significance in the natural events of the microcosmos; furtheron it would be an important contribution regarding a “New Physics” and a “New Cosmology”.
The “Dynamic Gravitation of Photons: A Hitherto Unknown Physical Quantity”. New Aspects on the Physics of Photons  [PDF]
Guido Zbiral
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.55030

In order to explore the nature of photons, no doubts can be allowed to exist concerning the “physics of photons”. While static gravitation plays no role in the physics of photons, this paper will show that the previously unknown nonbaryonic dynamic gravitation of photons determines not only the external physical behaviour of photons but also, in particular, the hitherto unknown physical events occurring within the photons themselves. For this reason, the paper places particular emphasis on dynamic gravitation as a new hitherto unknown physical quantity. Moreover the new type of gravitation postulated here also provides a plausible explanation of the mysterious nonbaryonic dark matter. As no generally accepted scientific explanation of the creation and essence of dark matter exists to date, it is to be anticipated that the nonbaryonic dynamic gravitation of photons is of general interest to physicists as well as cosmologists and may serve to initiate a general debate among them. Furthermore, this paper will also show that there exists a close mutual relationship between electrodynamics <> dynamic gravitation <> static gravitation <> electrostatics <> electrodynamics (refer to paragraph 4). Due to the fact that the insights into the relationship between photons and their dynamic gravitation have not been described by any other author to date, there exists only a few references that I can cite in support of my paper.

The Dynamic Gravitation of Photons from the Perspective of Maxwell’s Wave Equations  [PDF]
Guido Zbiral
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.512111

Although the gravitational constant (G) does not explicitly occur in the Maxwell Wave Equations, this paper will show that G is indeed implicitly contained in them. The logical consequence hereby is that electromagnetic radiation is associated with dynamic gravitation and notas assumed in Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativitywith “static” gravitation, dynamic gravitation being at the time unknown. According to the Maxwell Wave Equations, gravitation experiences the same dynamic (speed of light c) as electromagnetic radiation and must therefore also be of a quantum nature. There must exist an equal number of gravitational quanta as there are photons. Since photons do not possess a baryonic rest mass but only a relativistic mass, this mass must be nonbaryonic in nature—precisely as their dynamic gravitation.

Ideas on an Alternative Cosmological World Model with Different Initial Conditions  [PDF]
Guido Zbiral
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.63037
Abstract: The actual world model, the “Standard Model of Cosmology” (SMC), which dates back to the 1950s, no longer corresponds to the latest state of knowledge on the cosmos. By way of example, the assumption made in the SMC that the expansion of the cosmos is continually being reduced due to the effect of the gravitation exerted on all the matter in the universe is now contradicted by recent measurements. The reason for the expansion of cosmic space in accordance with Hubble’s Law is not physically explained by the SMC but merely stated as a fact. Another example is provided by the “dark phenomena”, which make up by far the greatest part of the energy of the cosmos, and exert a dominant influence on its behaviour. In spite of intensive research over the decades to provide answers to these as well as other open issues in cosmology, no satisfactory and plausible answers have hitherto been found. It is indeed time to propose an alternative cosmological world model to the SMC in the light of the latest insights on the universe.
Considerations on the Unification of Quantum Physics with the General Theory of Relativity  [PDF]
Guido Zbiral
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710105
Abstract: From a holistic perspective of a physical space of any given size1, it is invariably necessary to consider its energy content, since no physical means exists of making a physical space completely devoid of energy. Such a space would therefore only be a fictive “geometric space”—that can be intellectually conceived and treated according to the rules of the appropriate geometry—although not existing in reality in the cosmos. Cosmic space always contains energy in one form or another, limited by the space under consideration. Therefore, each space possesses an energy density—no matter how low, which never becomes zero. Because of the mass-energy equivalence relationship \"\", cosmic space also possesses a mass equivalent and is therefore “materialistic” in nature. If this is considered in association with Einstein’s space-time, what is obtained instead is an “energy-time”, i.e. an energy effect, which is based on Planck’s action quantum h. Under this condition, a close relationship would appear to exist between the General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics. Furthermore, it will be shown that the physical conditions of space are such that a natural quantisation of space and time exists, thus obviating the need for any artificial or arbitrary quantisation.
On the Cosmic Ray Sources  [PDF]
Guido Pizzella
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.55034

The cosmic ray energy spectrum is calculated assuming that cosmic rays are generated by astrophysical objects provided by magnetospheres with a dipole magnetic field. With simple geometric considerations, the energy spectrum E-2.5 is obtained, independently on the particle species.

The Origin of the Color Charge into Quarks  [PDF]
Giovanni Guido
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2019.51001
Abstract: Showing the origin of the mass in an additional coupling between field quantum oscillators, we formulate a hypothesis of a geometrical structure of the oscillators of “fields-particles”. In this way, we define the possible structure of quarks and hadrons (as the proton). This hypothesis is reasonable if one admits field oscillators composed by sub-oscillators at semi-quantum (IQuO) and in which a degree of internal freedom is definable. Using the IQuO model, we find the origin of the sign of electric charge in to particles and, in quarks, the isospin, the strangeness and colour charge. Finally, we formulate the structure of the gluons and the variation modality of the colour charge in quarks.
Estudio de la degradación de elementos refractarios de alúmina en la sinterización de aceros modificados con Mn
Sicre Artalejo, J.,Campos, M.,Torralba, J. M.,Zbiral, J.
Boletín de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Cerámica y Vidrio , 2008,
Abstract: The present work studies the degradation of the refractory bricks for sintering furnace, when steels with Mn are sintered. Due to the high Pvapour of Mn and the standard sintering atmospheres for this type of steels, Mn sublimates during the thermal cycle. This sublimation results in a gaseous phase beneficial to the diffusion processes related to the sintering of the steel but it could also alter the refractory’s composition. It is known that in the corrosion of refractory ceramics are many the individual processes involved, but always based on the physical-chemical properties of the corrosive agent, as well as the intrinsic properties of the refractory such as the interconnected porosity and the presence of multiple phases (1). Independently of the operating mechanism, new compounds can be produced altering the refractory behaviour, accelerating the ageing and diminishing its working conditions. For this matter, it is studied the evolution of the refractory tiles with the exposure time to Mn containing atmospheres at a standard sintering temperature, 1120 oC. Microstructural changes in the refractory elements, as a consequence of the presence of Mn(g) are analysed through optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with XR microanalyses (EDS), XR diffraction and XRF fluorescence studies. En este trabajo se estudia la degradación de los refractarios de un horno de sinterización, cuando están involucrados en el proceso aceros de baja aleación con adición de manganeso. Dada la elevada Pvapor del manganeso y las atmósferas habituales de sinterización para este tipo de aceros, se produce su sublimación durante el ciclo térmico. Se proporciona así, una fase gaseosa, que pudiendo ser beneficiosa para la difusión en las muestras de acero, puede alterar la composición de los refractarios. Se sabe que en la corrosión de materiales cerámicos refractarios son muchos los procesos individuales que contribuyen, pero siempre basados en las propiedades físico-químicas del agente corrosivo así como de las propiedades intrínsecas del refractario, como la porosidad interconectada y la presencia de múltiples fases (1). Independientemente del mecanismo de actuación, puede generar productos que alteren el comportamiento del refractario, acelerando su envejecimiento y disminuyendo su vida en servicio. Por ello, se estudia la evolución de los refractarios con el tiempo de exposición a atmósferas que contengan vapor de manganeso a la temperatura usual de sinterización, 1120oC. Los cambios microestructurales en los refractarios, como consecuencia de la presencia de Mn(g),
Towards Green Remediation: Metal Phytoextraction and Growth Analysis of Sorghum bicolor under Different Agronomic Management  [PDF]
Guido Fellet, Luca Marchiol
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2011.23018
Abstract: The role agronomy plays in the management of phytotechnologies is a significant example of the answers that the agrosciences can offer to the issues of society in the field of Green Remediation. This paper reports a study designed to test how the principles of classical plant growth analysis can be used in the field of phytoremediation. In the framework of a phytoremediation field trial set up in Torviscosa (Udine, Italy), Sorghum bicolor was grown receiving mineral fertilization, organic amendment, or neither as control. Crop growth was examined following classical functional growth analysis. Leaf area index (LAI), relative growth-rate (RGR) and shoot to weight ratio (SWR) showed how plants behaved in response to the treatments. Sorghum bicolor showed a poor potential for phytoremediation under our experimental conditions. However, some parameters of classical crop growth analysis resulted potentially useful also in the field of phytoremediation.
Applying the WHO instead of CDC growth charts may double obesity rates  [PDF]
Abeer Yasin, Guido Filler
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.32025

Aims: This study compares the WHO (2007) and the National Health Examination Survey (NHANES III) reference intervals and investigates the differences when applied on a Canadian cohort of older children and adolescents. Methods: We calculated height, weight and BMI z-scores of 4375 consecutive patients (1993 female, 45.6%) aged 5 - 20 years attending outpatient clinics at a single tertiary care centre using reference data of the latest NHANES (III) survey and the WHO (2007) growth charts. To address age dependency, data was stratified into age groups. Results: Using the NHANES III reference intervals, medians of weight (+0.46), height (+0.29) and BMI z-scores (+0.46) were significantly non-zero. The WHO (2007) growth charts yielded medians of +2.05, +0.32, +0.53 for weight, height and BMI z-scores respectively, all significantly non-zero. When comparing both growth charts, Canadian children had significantly different weight and BMI z-scores (p < 0.0001) with WHO growth charts whereas height z-score did not differ. Obesity rates (BMI z-score > 95th percentile) doubled from 8.6% to 16.0%. A significant age dependency was observed with higher WHO (2007) weight z-scores (>7 years) and higher BMI z-scores (7 to 13 years) and no significant difference was observed for height z-scores across all age groups. Gender differences were observed for weight z-scores (>9 years) and BMI (males: 9 - 11 years, p = 0.0118; 11 - 13 years, p = 0.0069) whereas no significant difference was found in height z-scores across all age groups. Conclusion: Our results reveal substantial differences between both reference populations and thus interpretation needs be done with caution, especially when labelling results as abnormal.

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