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De Novo Origins of Human Genes
Daniele Guerzoni,Aoife McLysaght
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002381
Human Food Chain and Microorganisms: A Case of Co-Evolution
M. Elisabetta Guerzoni
Frontiers in Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2010.00106
Relationship of Morpho-Sedimentological Variations to the Fate of Hg- and Zn-Polluted Sediments in the Contaminated Site of Porto Marghera, Lagoon of Venice, Italy  [PDF]
Emanuela Molinaroli, Alessandro Sarretta, Jorge A. de Souza Guimar?es, Margherita Botter, Daniele Cassin, Stefano Guerzoni
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.44A006

New data collected from twenty-six sites during 2008 inthe contaminated Site of National Interest (SIN) of Porto Marghera within the Lagoon of Venice (Italy), which has been affected by the presence of an industrial zone for the last 80 years, were compared with data from a campaign performed in the same site 30 years before (1976-1978). The SIN was found to be heavily polluted in the earlier study, and several tons of Hg and Zn are still stored in soils and industrial channel sediments, potentially affecting the lagoon part of the SIN. Bathymetric variations, grain-size, Hg and Zn content in sediments were analysed. The severe contamination of the late 1970s (Hg 1.7 μg/g; Zn 754 μg/g) had fallen by the late 2000s (Hg 0.9 μg/g; Zn 225 μg/g). The fall in Hg and Zn contamination over the 30-year period was mainly linked to the patterns of geomorphological change inside the SIN that affected two distinct sub-areas: 1) a stable-depositional (SD) area in the Northern part, which exerted a “dilution” effect on contaminants, with significant deposition (~11%) of coarse-grained sediments (63 - 8 μm), and 2) an area characterised by moderate-to-severe-erosion (MSE) to the South, which saw the loss (~13%) of pollutant-bearing fine-grained sediments (<8 μm). A budget calculation in the MSE sub-area showed a loss of ~2.5 tons for Hg and ~700 tons for Zn over three decades, most of which was exported to other parts of the LV or at the open sea. A similar amount is still stored in the SD area, which will be subject to erosion if hydrodynamic conditions change in the future. This study provides useful support to decision-making systems by helping to select hot-spots for remediation measures.

Identification of Volatile Components of Liverwort (Porella cordaeana) Extracts Using GC/MS-SPME and Their Antimicrobial Activity
Danka Bukvicki,Davide Gottardi,Milan Veljic,Petar D. Marin,Lucia Vannini,Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17066982
Abstract: Chemical constituents of liverwort (Porella cordaeana) extracts have been identified using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were rich in terpenoids such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (53.12%, 51.68%, 23.16%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (22.83%, 18.90%, 23.36%), respectively. The dominant compounds in the extracts were β-phellandrene (15.54%, 13.66%, 12.10%) and β-caryophyllene (10.72%, 8.29%, 7.79%, respectively). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated against eleven food microorganisms using the microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied from 0.50 to 2.00 mg/mL for yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 635, Zygosacharomyces bailii 45, Aerobasidium pullulans L6F, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 71, Pichia membranaefaciens OC 70, Pichia anomala CBS 5759, Pichia anomala DBVPG 3003 and Yarrowia lipolytica RO13), and from 1.00 to 3.00 mg/mL for bacterial strains (Salmonella enteritidis 155, Escherichia coli 555 and Listeria monocytogenes 56Ly). Methanol extract showed better activity in comparison with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. High percentages of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons could be responsible for the better antimicrobial activity.
Impact of a synbiotic food on the gut microbial ecology and metabolic profiles
Beatrice Vitali, Maurice Ndagijimana, Federica Cruciani, Paola Carnevali, Marco Candela, Maria Guerzoni, Patrizia Brigidi
BMC Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-10-4
Abstract: The synbiotic food did not modify the overall structure of the gut microbiome, as indicated by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The ability of the probiotic L. helveticus and B. longum strains to pass through the gastrointestinal tract was hypothesized on the basis of real-time PCR data. In spite of a stable microbiota, the intake of the synbiotic food resulted in a shift of the fecal metabolic profiles, highlighted by the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (GC-MS/SPME) analysis. The extent of short chain fatty acids (SCFA), ketones, carbon disulfide and methyl acetate was significantly affected by the synbiotic food consumption. Furthermore, the Canonical discriminant Analysis of Principal coordinates (CAP) of GC-MS/SPME profiles allowed a separation of the stool samples recovered before and after the consumption of the functional food.In this study we investigated the global impact of a dietary intervention on the gut ecology and metabolism in healthy humans. We demonstrated that the intake of a synbiotic food leads to a modulation of the gut metabolic activities with a maintenance of the gut biostructure. In particular, the significant increase of SCFA, ketones, carbon disulfide and methyl acetate following the feeding period suggests potential health promoting effects of the synbiotic food.Humans can be considered as "superorganisms" with an internal ecosystem of diverse symbiotic microorganisms and parasites that have interactive metabolic processes. Their homeostatic balance is dependent upon the interactions between the host and its microbial components [1]. The human intestine is home to some 100 trillion microorganisms of at least 1000 species. The density of bacterial cells in the colon has been estimated at 1011 to 1012 per ml, which makes it one of the most densely populated microbial habitats known [2,3]. This microbial ecosystem serves numerous important functions for the human
Escala diagramática para a quantifica o do complexo de doen as foliares de final de ciclo em soja
Martins M?nica C.,Guerzoni Rodrigo A.,Camara Gil M. de S.,Mattiazzi Patrícia
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2004,
Abstract: A ocorrência das doen as foliares de final de ciclo em soja (Glycine max) causadas pelos fungos Septoria glycines e Cercospora kikuchii é facilmente observada no campo. Entretanto, s o necessárias informa es precisas sobre a quantifica o de danos e perdas na produtividade. A falta de um método padr o de quantifica o visual para essas doen as pode levar a estimativas imprecisas da severidade das mesmas, induzindo a conclus es erradas. Com o objetivo de elaborar uma escala diagramática para quantificar a severidade dessas doen as, foram coletadas em campo, folhas apresentando diferentes níveis de severidade. A área de cada folha e sua correspondente severidade foram determinadas e, obedecendo-se a "Lei do estímulo de Weber-Fechner", foi elaborada uma escala com os níveis de severidade de doen a: 2,4; 15,2; 25,9; 40,5 e 66,6%. A valida o foi realizada por nove avaliadores, sem experiência na avalia o das doen as de final de ciclo, os quais estimaram a severidade de 30 folhas de soja com sintomas destas doen as. A precis o das avalia es variou de acordo com o avaliador (0,84 Keywords Glycine max --- mancha parda --- crestamento foliar de cercospora --- patometria --- severidade
Discovery by a proteomic approach of possible early biomarkers of drug-induced nephrotoxicity in medication-overuse headache
Elisa Bellei, Emanuela Monari, Aurora Cuoghi, Stefania Bergamini, Simona Guerzoni, Michela Ciccarese, Tomris Ozben, Aldo Tomasi, Luigi Alberto Pini
The Journal of Headache and Pain , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1129-2377-14-6
Abstract: In the present work we employed specialized proteomic techniques, namely two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and the innovative Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), to discover characteristic proteomic profiles associated with MOH condition.By 2-DE and MS analysis we identified 21 over-excreted proteins in MOH patients, particularly in NSAIDs abusers, and the majority of these proteins were involved in a variety of renal impairments, as resulted from a literature search. Urine protein profiles generated by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis showed different spectra among groups. Moreover, significantly higher number of total protein spots and protein peaks were detected in NSAIDs and mixtures abusers.These findings confirm the presence of alterations in proteins excretion in MOH patients. Analysis of urinary proteins by powerful proteomic technologies could lead to the discovery of early candidate biomarkers, that might allow to identify MOH patients prone to develop potential drug overuse-induced nephrotoxicity.Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a secondary cause of chronic daily headache, where headaches occur 15 or more days per month when the therapeutic agent is used excessively and on a regular basis for 3 or more months, and when headaches have developed or markedly worsened during the period of medication overuse [1]. Approximately 40% of all patients attending Headache Centers presents a chronic form of headache and 80% of these subjects excessively use symptomatic drugs which include analgesics, migraine-specific medications (such as triptans), opioids, or drugs combinations [2]. Although MOH has a prevalence of 1-2% in the general population, it represents a relevant health problem associated with significant long-term morbidity and disability [3]. MOH manifests as increased frequency and intensity of migraine attacks and as enhanced sensitivity to stimuli that elici
Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization
Raffaella Di Cagno, Maria De Angelis, Ilaria De Pasquale, Maurice Ndagijimana, Pamela Vernocchi, Patrizia Ricciuti, Francesca Gagliardi, Luca Laghi, Carmine Crecchio, Maria Guerzoni, Marco Gobbetti, Ruggiero Francavilla
BMC Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219
Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the microbiota and metabolome of 19 celiac disease children under gluten-free diet (treated celiac disease, T-CD) and 15 non-celiac children (HC). PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses by universal and group-specific primers were carried out in duodenal biopsies and faecal samples. Based on the number of PCR-DGGE bands, the diversity of Eubacteria was the higher in duodenal biopsies of T-CD than HC children. Bifidobacteria were only found in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, PCR-DGGE profiles of faecal samples for Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria differed between T-CD and HC. As shown by culture-dependent methods, the levels of Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacteria were confirmed to be significantly higher (P = 0.028; P = 0.019; and P = 0.023, respectively) in fecal samples of HC than in T-CD children. On the contrary, cell counts (CFU/ml) of presumptive Bacteroides, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shighella and Klebsiella were significantly higher (P = 0.014) in T-CD compared to HC children. Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus plantarum were the species most diffusely identified. This latter species was also found in all duodenal biopsies of T-CD and HC children. Other bacterial species were identified only in T-CD or HC faecal samples. As shown by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis, the percentage of strains identified as lactobacilli significantly (P = 0.011) differed between T-CD (ca. 26.5%) and HC (ca. 34.6%) groups. The metabolome of T-CD and HC children was studied using faecal and urine samples which were analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. As shown by Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of volatile organic compounds and free amino acids in faecal and/or urine samples were markedly affected by CD.As shown by the parallel microbiology and metabolome approach, the gluten-f
Escala diagramática para a quantifica??o do complexo de doen?as foliares de final de ciclo em soja
Martins, M?nica C.;Guerzoni, Rodrigo A.;Camara, Gil M. de S.;Mattiazzi, Patrícia;Louren?o, Sílvia A.;Amorim, Lilian;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582004000200009
Abstract: the occurrence of late season leaf diseases in soybean (glycine max) caused by the fungi septoria glycines and cercospora kikuchii are easily identified in field. however, there is a need for more precise information to quantify damage and yield losses. the lack of a standardized visual method may lead to inaccurate estimates of severity and innaccurate conclusions. with the purpose of elaborating a diagrammatic scale to assess these diseases, leaves with different levels of severity were collected in the field. the area of each leaf and its correspondent severity were determined, and following the "stimulus law by weber-fechner", a scale was elaborated with severity levels: 2.4, 15.2, 25.9, 40.5 and 66.6%. validation was carried out by nine appraisers, without previous practice in assessing late season leaf diseases, who estimated the severity on 30 leaflets of soybean (glycine max) with disease symptoms. the variance found among appraisers (0.84
Análise das interven??es de terapia ocupacional no desempenho das atividades de vida diária em crian?as com paralisia cerebral: uma revis?o sistemática da literatura
Guerzoni, Vanessa Pio Diniz;Barbosa, Adriane Provesano;Borges, Ana Cristina Chama;Chagas, Paula Silva de Carvalho;Gontijo, Ana Paula Bensemann;Eterovick, Fernanda;Mancini, Marisa Cotta;
Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-38292008000100003
Abstract: objectives: to evaluate, by means of a careful search for and analysis of articles, the effects of interventions used by occupational therapists to improve the performance of everyday activities in children with cerebral palsy. methods: the search for literature on the subject was conducted using the electronic databases ovid, medline, cinahl and lilacs, and covered articles published between january 2001 and may 2006, in english or portuguese, using the following keywords: "occupational therapy", "cerebral palsy", and "child". four studies were selected, according to previously determined inclusion criteria, and these were evaluated for their methodological quality using the otseeker scale. results: the analysis of the methodological quality of the selected studies revealed scores from low to moderate on the otseeker scale. there were differences in relation to the type of intervention used to promote everyday activities, and regarding the outcomes that were investigated. conclusions: the context in which the child with cerebral palsy is living seems to be an important factor in his/her functional performance. the systematic evaluation of the literature on the effects of occupational therapy interventions in promoting everyday activities in children with cerebral palsy may contribute to evidence-based practices among these health professionals.
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