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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 42606 matches for " Guangyong Xu "
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Competing orders in PZN-xPT and PMN-xPT relaxor ferroelectrics
Guangyong Xu
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.79.011011
Abstract: Neutron and x-ray scattering studies on relaxor ferroelectric systems Pb(Zn$_{1/3}$Nb$_{2/3}$)O$_3$ (PZN), Pb(Mg$_{1/3}$Nb$_{2/3}$)O$_3$ (PMN), and their solid solutions with PbTiO$_3$ (PT) have shown that inhomogeneities and disorder play important roles in the materials properties. Although a long-range polar order can be established at low temperature - sometimes with the help of an external electric field; short-range local structures called the ``polar nano-regions'' (PNR) still persist. Both the bulk structure and the PNR have been studied in details. The coexistence and competition of long- and short-range polar orders and how they affect the structural and dynamical properties of relaxor materials are discussed.
Absolute cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data
Guangyong Xu,Zhijun Xu,J. M. Tranquada
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4818323
Abstract: We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform absolute normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the dynamic spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the dynamic susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.
Coexistence and competition of local- and long-range polar orders in a ferroelectric relaxor
Guangyong Xu,P. M. Gehring,G. Shirane
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.74.104110
Abstract: We have performed a series of neutron diffuse scattering measurements on a single crystal of the solid solution Pb(Zn$_{1/3}$Nb$_{2/3}$)O$_3$ (PZN) doped with 8% PbTiO$_3$ (PT), a relaxor compound with a Curie temperature T$_C \sim 450$ K, in an effort to study the change in local polar orders from the polar nanoregions (PNR) when the material enters the ferroelectric phase. The diffuse scattering intensity increases monotonically upon cooling in zero field, while the rate of increase varies dramatically around different Bragg peaks. These results can be explained by assuming that corresponding changes occur in the ratio of the optic and acoustic components of the atomic displacements within the PNR. Cooling in the presence of a modest electric field $\vec{E}$ oriented along the [111] direction alters the shape of diffuse scattering in reciprocal space, but does not eliminate the scattering as would be expected in the case of a classic ferroelectric material. This suggests that a field-induced redistribution of the PNR has taken place.
The Persistence and Memory of Polar Nano-Regions in a Ferroelectric Relaxor Under an Electric Field
Guangyong Xu,P. M. Gehring,G. Shirane
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.214106
Abstract: The response of polar nanoregions (PNR) in the relaxor compound Pb[(Zn$_{1/3}$Nb$_{2/3}$)$_{0.92}$Ti$_{0.08}$]O$_3$ subject to a [111]-oriented electric field has been studied by neutron diffuse scattering. Contrary to classical expectations, the diffuse scattering associated with the PNR persists, and is even partially enhanced by field cooling. The effect of the external electric field is retained by the PNR after the field is removed. The ``memory'' of the applied field reappears even after heating the system above $T_C$, and cooling in zero field.
Dynamics and Structure of PMN and PZN
G. Shirane,Guangyong Xu,P. M. Gehring
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: A review is given of recent neutron and x-ray scattering studies of the lead-oxide perovskite relaxor systems Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3. X-ray measurements by Noheda et al. have established that these two systems exhibit nearly identical phase diagrams in which a rhombohedral-monoclinic-tetragonal structural sequence takes place with increasing PbTiO3 concentration. Recent high-energy x-ray and neutron measurements on single crystals of PZN and PMN-10PT, however, show that the rhombohedral distortions occur only in the outermost 20 - 40 microns, while the bulk of each crystal transforms into a new phase X, which has a nearly cubic unit cell. This situation is very similar to the structural behavior of pure PMN at Tc = 220 K. A simple model has been suggested that correlates phase X to the unique atomic displacements of the polar nanoregions, which are created at the Burns temperature.
Phase instability induced by polar nanoregions in a relaxor ferroelectric system
Guangyong Xu,Jinsheng Wen,C. Stock,P. M. Gehring
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1038/nmat2196
Abstract: Local inhomogeneities known as polar nanoregions (PNR) play a key role in governing the dielectric properties of relaxor ferroelectrics - a special class of material that exhibits an enormous electromechanical response and is easily polarized with an external field. Using neutron inelastic scattering methods, we show that the PNR can also significantly affect the structural properties of the relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-4.5%PbTiO3 (PZN-4.5%PT). A strong interaction is found between the PNR and the propagation of sound waves, i.e. acoustic phonons, the visibility of which can be enhanced with an external electric field. A comparison between acoustic phonons propagating along different directions reveals a large asymmetry in the lattice dynamics that is induced by the PNR. We suggest that a phase instability induced by this PNR-phonon interaction may contribute to the ultrahigh piezoelectric response of this and related relaxor ferroelectric materials. Our results also naturally explain the emergence of the various observed monoclinic phases in these systems.
Robust charge and magnetic order under electric field and current in the multiferroic LuFe(2)O(4)
Jinsheng Wen,Guangyong Xu,Genda Gu,S. M. Shapiro
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.144121
Abstract: We performed elastic neutron scattering measurements on the charge- and magnetically-ordered multiferroic material LuFe(2)O(4). An external electric field along the [001] direction with strength up to 20 kV/cm applied at low temperature (~100 K) does not affect either the charge or magnetic structure. At higher temperatures (~360 K), before the transition to three-dimensional charge-ordered state, the resistivity of the sample is low, and an electric current was applied instead. A reduction of the charge and magnetic peak intensities occurs when the sample is cooled under a constant electric current. However, after calibrating the real sample temperature using its own resistance-temperature curve, we show that the actual sample temperature is higher than the thermometer readings, and the "intensity reduction" is entirely due to internal sample heating by the applied current. Our results suggest that the charge and magnetic orders in LuFe(2)O(4) are unaffected by the application of external electric field/current, and previously observed electric field/current effects can be naturally explained by internal sample heating.
Response of polar nanoregions in 68%Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-32%PbTiO3 to a [001] electric field
Jinsheng Wen,Guangyong Xu,C. Stock,P. M. Gehring
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.2959077
Abstract: We report neutron diffuse scattering measurements on a single crystal of 68%Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-32%PbTiO3. Strong diffuse scattering is observed at low temperatures. An external field applied along the [001] direction affects the diffuse scattering in the (HK0) plane significantly, suggesting a redistribution occurs between polar nanoregions of different polarizations perpendicular to the field. By contrast, the [001] field has no effect on the diffuse scattering in the (HOL) and (0KL) zones.
3-D mapping of diffuse scattering in PZN-xPT
Guangyong Xu,Z. Zhong,H. Hiraka,G. Shirane
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: High energy (67 keV) x-ray diffuse scattering measurements were performed on single crystals of Pb(Zn$_{1/3}$Nb$_{2/3}$)O$_3$-$x$PbTiO$_3$ (PZN-$x$PT). A novel technique was developed to map out the diffuse scattering distribution in all three dimensions around a large number of Bragg peaks simultaneously, taking advantage of the almost flat Ewald sphere of the high energy x-ray beam. For $x=0, 4.5%$, and 8%, the results are very similar, indicating same type of correlations of polarizations in these compounds. Our results show that the diffuse scattering intensity consists of six $<110>$ rod-type intensities around reciprocal lattice points. These rod-type intensities are very likely due to condensations of soft optic phonon modes, polarized in the perpendicular $<1\bar{1}0>$ directions. A simple model is suggested where these soft phonon modes condense into static \{110\} type planar or ``pancake'' shaped correlations of the in-plane $<1\bar{1}0>$ polarizations.
Superconductivity, Antiferromagnetism, and Neutron Scattering
John M. Tranquada,Guangyong Xu,Igor A. Zaliznyak
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2013.09.029
Abstract: High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfer provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues.
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