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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34782 matches for " Guadalupe; Olaiz-Fernández "
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Niveles de plomo sanguíneo en madres y recién nacidos derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Navarrete-Espinosa,Joel; Sanín-Aguirre,Luz Helena; Escandón-Romero,Celia; Benitez-Martínez,Guadalupe; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo; Hernández-Avila,Mauricio;
Salud Pública de México , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342000000500004
Abstract: objective: to establish the relation between maternal blood lead (mbl) and umbilical cord blood lead (cbl) levels during delivery, and to determine the major predictors for mbl in women covered by the mexican institute of social security (miss), in mexico city. material and methods: from 1991 to 1993, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four miss hospitals, among normal pregnant women who volunteered to participate. blood samples were taken from women and from the umbilical cord during delivery. statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and simple and multiple linear regression. results: a total of 1 404 mother-newborn pairs were studied. mean maternal age was 25 years. mbl average was 10.7 ± 6.5 μg/dl; no significant differences were found by hospital, age, or marital status. mean cbl was 10.4 ± 6.2 μg/dl. a log unit increase in mbl corresponded to a log increase of 0.62 in cbl (p< 0.01). pearson's correlation was 0.61 (p< 0.01). the main predictors of mbl were: use of lead-glazed ceramic (positively associated) and milk and orange juice intake (negatively associated). forty-seven percent of mothers and 50 percent of the newborn babies had values higher than 10 μg/dl, and 578 of them had blood lead levels higher than their mothers. conclusions: further studies should be carried out in order to identify necessary interventions.
Aplicación de la perspectiva de género en artículos publicados en cuatro revistas nacionales de salud, México, 2000-2003
Cerón-Mireles,Prudencia; Sánchez-Carrillo,Constanza I.; Robledo-Vera,Cecilia; Zolezzi,Aurora del Río; Pedrosa-Islas,Laura; Reyes-Zapata,Hilda; Cerón-Mireles,Berta; Ordaz-Hernández,Guadalupe; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo Adolfo;
Salud Pública de México , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342006000400008
Abstract: objective: the objective of this study was to determine the application of gender perspective in public health papers in four journals published by the mexican national health institutes. material and methods: a total of 999 papers published in the four journals between 2000 and 2003 was reviewed. two levels of analysis were considered: a) data presented by sex, providing description of differences between women and men, and b) the analysis of these differences from gender perspective. results: one quarter (25.4%) of the articles described results by sex. the largest percentage was published in salud pública de méxico (48.8%) and the smallest in revista de investigación clínica (16.1%). gender perspective was used in only 4.2% of papers; of these, drug addictions, health behaviour and violence were the topics that occurred most frequently. conclusions: this is the first study to assess the application of gender perspective in mexican health articles. similarly to other countries, a very small percentage of authors analyzed sex differences, and a smaller proportion applied gender perspective. results demonstrate the importance of promoting interdisciplinary research that may promote the elucidation of health inequalities between men and women.
Diabetes mellitus en adultos mexicanos: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000
Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo; Rojas,Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas,Carlos A; Rauda,Juan; Villalpando,Salvador;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000900004
Abstract: objective: to show the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (dm) and its associated factors in adults, using data derived from the 2000 national health survey (nhs). material and methods: the 2000 nhs was conducted between november 1999 and june 2000. an adult questionnaire was administered to 45 294 subjects 20 years of age and older. capillary glucose levels, weight, height and blood pressure were obtained. individual weighted factors were considered in the statistical analysis, as was the survey's complex sampling design to obtain variances using sudaan 7.5.6. results: the national prevalence of dm in adults ages 20 years and older was 7.5% (95% ci: 7.1-7.9). the prevalence was 7.8% in women and 7.2% in men. it was higher according to age: 2.3% in adults 40 years or younger and 21.2% in those older than 60 years of age. in the urban population, prevalence was 8.1% and in the rural population it was 6.5%. the disease was more frequent in the northern region of the country (8.4%) and in the mexico city metropolitan area (8.1%). dm was more frequent in the population with the least amount of schooling (9.9%), the lowest income (8.1%), high blood pressure (13.7%), hypercholesterolemia (23.3%) microalbuminuria (15.5%) and renal disease (12.3%). using multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender, variables associated with dm were identified: age, little schooling, family history of dm, high blood pressure, renal disease or hypercholesterolemia in both genders. abdominal obesity was associated with dm in women only and living in an urban area was associated with dm only in men. the highest associations were observed with age, family history of dm, and microalbuminuria. conclusion: results from the 2000 nhs show that dm represents a serious public health problem in mexico. the impact increases when dm affects populations with social or economic factors that limit access to treatment. data reported in this paper are useful to the implementation of screening and preve
Body mass index associated with hyperglycemia and alterations of components of metabolic syndrome in Mexican adolescents
Villalpando,Salvador; Carrión,Citlalli; Barquera,Simón; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo; Robledo,Ricardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000900003
Abstract: objective: this research aims to describe the epidemiology of obesity and its association with alterations in some components of metabolic syndrome, such as serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and some lipids in a sub-sample of the mexican health survey (mhs) of youth ages 10 to 19 years. material and methods: this analysis is based on a randomly selected sub-sample of the mhs of 20% of the youth ages 10 to19 years (n=1977), carried-out in mexico in the year 2000 and distinguishes differences between national, rural and urban areas as well as four geographical country regions. serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides (tg), total cholesterol (tc) and hdl-cholesterol (hdlc) were measured. the protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the mexican national institute of public health. results: overall, 14.8% of the individuals were overweight, 6.7% were obese and 37.5% had a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (dm2). the overall mean concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly higher and those of hdlc were significantly lower in obese subjects than in individuals with normal body mass index (bmi) (p< 0.05-0.001). the probability ratio (pr) of being in quintile 5 for glucose distribution was significantly higher for obese males and females (rp=2.1, p<0.001) than for their non-obese counterparts. it was also higher for females with a history of dm2 (rp=1.12, p<0.02), but not for males. the pr of being in quintile 5 for insulin distribution was significantly higher for obese males (rp=3.51, p<0.001) and females (rp=3.3, p<0.001) than for non-obese counterparts. it was also higher for male (rp=1.28, p<0.02) and female (rp=1.27, p<0.02) subjects with a history of dm2. finally, the pr for being in quintile 5 for tg distribution was significantly higher for obese males (rp=4.71, p<0.001) and females (rp=1.75, p<0.001) than for their non-obese counterparts. discussion: a strong association between
Methodology of the fasting sub-sample from the Mexican Health Survey, 2000
Barquera,Simón; Carrión,Citlalli; Campos,Ismael; Espinosa,Juan; Rivera,Juan; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000900014
Abstract: objective: to report the comparative results of the sub-sample of fasting adults selected for the biochemical measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and the rest of the mexican health survey (mhs) (2000) participants. material and methods: the nationally representative, cross-sectional mexican health survey (2000) was analyzed. survey participants reporting a fasting state period of 9- to 12-h were included in a sub-sample (n= 2 535) and compared with all other participants (n= 41 126). prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95%ci) were calculated for socio-demographic, anthropometric, health and personal background characteristics and compared between groups using pearson c2 to determine significant differences. mean and 95%ci and a t-test were calculated to analyze continuous variables. results: from the 45 294 adults participating in the mhs, 5.59% were at fasting state. the fasting sub-sample (fs) had a higher male-to-female ratio and was on average 3.5 years younger than the non-fasting participants (nf) and had a 1.5cm wider average waist circumference. no differences were found in location, country region, socio-economic status, indigenous population, or literacy. also, no differences were found in weight, height, bmi, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, previous medical diagnosis of dislypidemias, or tobacco or alcohol consumption. conclusion: this paper documents the characteristics of the fasting sub-sample from the mexican health survey (mhs). overall, the non-fasting participants had no relevant differences that can contribute to generate biased results in the analysis of biochemical indicators of cardiovascular risk.
Prevalencia en México de la infección y el estado de portador de la hepatitis B en adultos
Valdespino,José Luis; Conde-González,Carlos J; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo; Palma,Oswaldo; Sepúlveda,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000900012
Abstract: objective: to estimate the prevalence of chronic hepatitis b infection and carrier status in mexico; to analyze the frequency and distribution of hepatitis b markers in relation to the demographic and geographic variables and to identify risk factors. materials and methods: a total of 12 014 sera samples from the 2000 national health survey that were randomly selected for anti-hbc and hbsag were studied. the sera were collected between november 1999 and june 2000 on a national level. results: seroprevalence for anti-hbc and hbsag were 3.3% (ci 95%: 2.8-3.9) and 0.21% (0.11-0.37), respectively. odds ratios adjusted by age for anti-hbc were: 15.3 for subjects 50 to 59 years old as compared with adults less than 29 years of age; 2.6 for residents in the southern region of the country as compared with residents in the central region; 4.6 for laborers as compared with business owners; 2.1 for women having had stillbirths; and 1.7 for adults having initiated sexual relations before 25 years of age. conclusion: the epidemiological pattern for hepatitis b in mexico is lower than the data worldwide. nevertheless, it is of concern that 1.7 million mexicans have suffered from the infection caused by this virus and 107 000 suffer from a chronic carrier status.
Perfil del comportamiento sexual en adolescentes mexicanos de 12 a 19 a?os de edad: resultados de la ENSA 2000
González-Garza,Carlos; Rojas-Martínez,Rosalba; Hernández-Serrato,María I; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo;
Salud Pública de México , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342005000300004
Abstract: objective: to describe traits associated with sexual behaviors in mexican adolescents, their knowledge about contraception, and factors associated with pregnancy and utilization of contraceptives during first sexual intercourse. material and methods: data from the mexican national health survey 2000 (ensa 2000) were analyzed. this study, conducted between september 1999 and march 2000, was a complex survey with a probabilistic, stratified, and cluster sampling design. the sample population included 15 241 adolescents 12 to 19 years of age. data analysis included descriptive statistics and a chi-squared test for differences of proportions; also, logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. results: a total of 69.2% adolescents reported knowledge of at least one contraception method; 16.4% of subjects reported having had sexual intercourse. males initiated sexual intercourse earlier than females and only 37% of all adolescents utilized contraceptives during their first sexual intercourse. logistic regression analysis showed that being male, having a higher education, having knowledge of at least one contraception method, and having initiated sexual intercourse at an older age, were factors associated with utilization of a contraception method in their first sexual intercourse. a total of 55.7% of sexually active female adolescents had been pregnant. pregnancy among adolescents was associated with low educational level, sexual activity at early age, and to have sometime lived in free union. conclusions: the majority of sexually active adolescents did not use contraception during their first sexual intercourse, rendering them at risk of unwanted pregnancies.
Dise?o y metodología de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000
Sepúlveda,Jaime; Tapia-Conyer,Roberto; Velásquez,Oscar; Valdespino,José Luis; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo; Kuri,Pablo; Sarti,Elsa; Conde-González,Carlos J;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000900015
Abstract: objective: the 2000 mexican national health survey (nhs) was created as part of the system for national health surveys conducted during the last months of 1999 and the first three of 2000. the 2000 nhs is a probabilistic survey of households from which users of health services were selected according to three age groups. information was gathered through direct interviews with appropriate informants. biological samples were taken for clinical tests as well as for measuring biological and somatometric parameters. material and methods: the sample design of the 2000 nhs was stratified and clustered. sample size was 1 470 households per state for a total of 47 040 households nationwide (there are 32 states in méxico). sample weights were calculated and modified according to the non-response and post-stratified to calibrate for population distribution. interviewers were trained in order to maintain a high response rate, especially for biological samples. results: a total of 83 157 blood samples were collected from the 94 000 expected (88% response rate). all samples were refrigerated immediately after collection and divided in four vials for storage at the national institute for public health's laboratory. samples were frozen at -150° celsius until further analysis.
Prevalencia de infección por VIH en la población adulta en México: una epidemia en ascenso y expansión
Valdespino,José Luis; García-García,Ma. de Lourdes; Conde-González,Carlos J; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo; Palma,Oswaldo; Sepúlveda,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000900010
Abstract: objective: unaids has recognized that estimating hiv infection at a national or regional level is important for evaluation, program planning and advocacy. following this recommendation, the purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude of hiv infection prevalence among adults from the general population using information from the national health survey (ensa 2000), a probabilistic, multi-stage, stratified, cluster household survey conducted by the mexican ministry of health between november 1999 and june 2000. availability of information from the seroepidemiological survey conducted in 1987 allowed for the estimation of trends between the two surveys (1987-2000). material and methods: a total of 21 271 males and females 20 years or older included in the ensa 2000 were randomly selected and studied for anti-hiv 1/2 igg (elisa), confirmed by immunoelectrotransference (wb), and for risk factors associated with hiv infection. samples were processed in the national institute of public health in 2005. results: prevalence for hiv infection was 0.25%. the main factors associated with infection were younger ages, male gender, residence in the federal district, college education or higher, and being single or divorced. conclusions: seroprevalence among adults shows a ten-fold increase as compared with the results of the national seroprevalence survey of 1987. although the epidemic continues to be concentrated among men who have sex with men, results provide evidence of dissemination towards the heterosexual population.
Seroprevalencia de la hepatitis C en adultos de México: ¿un problema de salud pública emergente?
Valdespino,José Luis; Conde-González,Carlos J; Olaiz-Fernández,Gustavo; Palma,Oswaldo; Kershenobich,David; Sepúlveda,Jaime;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000900011
Abstract: objective: hepatitis c virus (hcv) infection is becoming a chronic disease in 60-85% of individuals and is a cause of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. the objective of this study was to report the seroprevalence of hcv infection in a probabilistic sample of the mexican population. material and methods: this study is based on information obtained from the national health survey conducted in 2000. a total of 21 271 sera randomly selected for anti-hcv and rna of hcv was studied. it was performed at the national institute of public health in 2005. results: seroprevalence of hcv antibodies was 1.4% (ic95% 1.1%-1.6%), of which 35.7% had active infection. risk factors for infection were using heroine (rm= 9.8, ic: 2.1-41.4), being separated from his/her spouse (rm= 2.6, ic: 1.1-5.9), being a widower (rm= 2.2, ic: 1.1-4.3) and living in the northern states in the country (rm= 1.9, ic: 1.1-3.2). conclusion: results from this study indicate that hcv is an emerging public health problem in mexico. risk factors indicate that the main route of transmission is through transfusion of blood products (previous to 1996) and the second route is through usage of intravenous drugs and sexual practices.
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