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Advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and information communication technology (ICT) have facilitated the development of integrated electrical power systems for the future. A recent major issue is the need for a healthy and sustainable power transmission and distribution system that is smart, reliable and climate-friendly. Therefore, at the start of the 21st Century, Government, utilities and research communities are working jointly to develop an intelligent grid system, which is now known as a smart grid. Smart grid will provide highly consistent and reliable services, efficient energy management practices, smart metering integration, automation and precision decision support systems and self healing facilities. Smart grid will also bring benefits of seamless integration of renewable energy sources to the power networks. This paper focuses on the benefits and probable deployment issues of smart grid technology for a sustainable future both nationally and internationally. This paper also investigates the ongoing major research programs in Europe, America and Australia for smart grid and the associated enabling technologies. Finally, this study explores the prospects and characteristics of renewable energy sources with possible deployment integration issues to develop a clean energy smart grid technology for an intelligent power system.
smart grid will be a power grid more “aware” of its operating state and having the ability to self-heal. These features may be incorporated into the grid by
implementing a phasor measurement units based wide area measurement system.
Such a system will help in better real time monitoring and control of the grid.
However, the wide area measurement system is subject to challenges with respect
to its security. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of security issues with a wide area measurement system is presented
and the research efforts required to be taken are identified. Moreover, the effect
of communication failure on a PMU installed system has been presented using
integer linear programming.
generation is one of the largest contributors to climate change. Renewable
energy sources are a promising part of the solution but uncertainty combined
with a lack of controllability prevents renewable sources of power from being
direct substitutes of conventional energy sources. This shift towards a higher
penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the
implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand
response to alter demand on following generation. Research on renewable energy
penetration of the grid predominately focuses on wind and solar power resources
but demand cannot always match availability from these sources and therefore
greatly increases the need for energy storage. Tidal power differs from solar
and wind. It’s a predictably renewable resource
which makes it extremely valuable even on a relatively small scale.
Introduction of tidal power in a high penetration micro-grid can serve to
stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. Widely different time
scale for wind, solar and tidal power availability results in low
cross correlations and therefore increases stability. This research describes
an incremental approach to migrating a grid-tie island towards the formation of
a smart-micro grid. The system will include a high penetration of three
distributed generation systems, wind, solar and tidal and utilize commercially
available energy storage and a smart-home management controller. Dynamic demand
response through load balancing is implemented to minimize interactions with
the electric grid. A second component of this work is to determine the optimum
tidal generation capacity for the micro grid such that needed
storage capacity from batteries or the utility grid is minimized.
This paper presents issues and trepidations
associated with transferring from conventional methods of electricity
monitoring and distribution to the cyberspace, especially in developing
countries like Nigeria where current approaches have failed to provide regular,
reliable electric power. The Smart Power Grid is a developing concept already
put to test, successfully, in very advanced countries. The implementation of
the Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and
multiple communication infrastructures. Connecting the electricity grid to the
Internet can provide a lot of advantages in terms of control, data viewing and
generation. However, in Nigeria, the proposal to transfer conventional methods
to the Smart Grid has perhaps not hit the deck yet because of excessive focus
on power generation, and because of the annotated reservations associated with
the Internet, as the Smart Grid involves circulation and dispersal via
inter-networking structures. This paper describes the key technologies that
support Power Grid substation automation, summarizes the mode of implementation
into the existing Nigerian electrical infrastructure and brings fore issues and
mitigating approaches to provide a seamless and securitised transfer of the
current power grid to the Smart Grid.