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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2098 matches for " Grid "
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The Development of Electricity Grid, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy in Taiwan  [PDF]
Hwa Meei Liou
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2017.86011
Abstract: The grid has played a vital role in the evolution of the electricity market; from traditional to smart grids; from fossil fuel power generated electricity grid connections to the integration of other renewable energy forms such as solar and wind power; the grid has played a key role in each step in Taiwan’s move towards energy transition. This study includes Taiwan’s construction of its transmission and distribution network, the recently passed newly revised version of the Electricity Act with its revisions to its transmission and distribution related content, and policies promoting the smart grid as well as issues that the renewable energy grid has raised in both the technical and legal aspects. Taiwan’s electricity supply system is made up of the northern, central and southern systems. The Transmission and distribution grid have been defined as a common carrier, maintaining state-owned monopoly. The smart grid has 6 main facets to promote, including smart generation and dispatch, smart transmission, smart consumers, smart grid electricity grid industry and the establishment of a smart grid environment. Due to the possible effects of the integration of renewable energy generated electricity, there is a vital need for the regulation of the grid’s management and skills.
Pricing Services in a Grid of Computers Using Priority Segmentation  [PDF]
Emmanuel Fragniere, Francesco Moresino
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.33040
Abstract: In the past decade many grids of computers have been built among non-profit institutions. These grids are built on a voluntary participation and the resources are not charged to the users. When a resource is given free of charge its allocation is in general not optimal. In this paper, we propose an original mechanism that allows an optimal resource allocation without cash exchanges. We develop a pricing scheme where the service is segmented according to the priority level. The optimal prices of the different services are obtained by solving a Markov Decision Process (MDP). Each participant receives a credit that is proportional to its contribution that enables him to have access to services offered by the grid.
Holonic Architecture of the Smart Grid  [PDF]
Ebisa Negeri, Nico Baken, Marjan Popov
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.42025
Abstract: With the growing concerns about sustainable energy, energy efficiency and energy security, the electrical power system is undergoing major changes. Distributed energy sources are becoming widely available at the lower parts of the grid. As a result, more and more end consumers are transforming from passive consumers to active “prosumers” that can autonomously generate, store, import and/or export power. As prosumers increasingly dominate the power system, the system demands capability that allows enormous number of stakeholders with heterogeneous types to exchange power on the grid. Unfortunately, the classical power system cannot efficiently handle this scenario since it was designed for centralized power distribution. Thus, restructuring the rather old power system is indispensable. In this paper, we apply the holonic approach to structure the smart grid as a system that is bottom-up organized from autonomous prosumers that are recursively clustered at various aggregation layers. Based on this, we present a control architecture of the smart grid using holonic concepts. Our control architecture is characterized by autonomy of the prosumers, distributed control, recursive self-similar control structures at different aggregation levels. Further, we present a service oriented architecture (SOA) framework that models the control functions that make up the holonic control architecture. Our proposed control architecture is tested using a simulation set-up.
Grid Technology
Madhu Bhatia
International Journal of Computer Science and Management Studies , 2011,
Abstract: Grid computing is a means of allocating thecomputational power of a large number of computers tocomplex difficult computation or problem. Gridcomputing is a term referring to the combination ofcomputer resources from multiple administrativedomains to reach a common goal. Grid is a form ofdistributed computing mainly to virtualizes and utilizegeographically distributed idle resources. A grid is adistributed computational and storage environment oftencomposed of heterogeneous autonomously managedsubsystems. This paper contains the most importantaspects of Grid computing. Grid Computing allows highperformance distributed system to act as a singlecomputer. An overview of grid structure and techniquesis given in order to understand the way Grid work.
Smart Grid for a Sustainable Future  [PDF]
G. M. Shafiullah, Amanullah M. T. Oo, A. B. M. Shawkat Ali, Peter Wolfs
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.41004

Advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and information communication technology (ICT) have facilitated the development of integrated electrical power systems for the future. A recent major issue is the need for a healthy and sustainable power transmission and distribution system that is smart, reliable and climate-friendly. Therefore, at the start of the 21st Century, Government, utilities and research communities are working jointly to develop an intelligent grid system, which is now known as a smart grid. Smart grid will provide highly consistent and reliable services, efficient energy management practices, smart metering integration, automation and precision decision support systems and self healing facilities. Smart grid will also bring benefits of seamless integration of renewable energy sources to the power networks. This paper focuses on the benefits and probable deployment issues of smart grid technology for a sustainable future both nationally and internationally. This paper also investigates the ongoing major research programs in Europe, America and Australia for smart grid and the associated enabling technologies. Finally, this study explores the prospects and characteristics of renewable energy sources with possible deployment integration issues to develop a clean energy smart grid technology for an intelligent power system.

Vulnerability Analysis of Wide Area Measurement System in the Smart Grid  [PDF]
Mohd Rihan, Mukhtar Ahmad, M. Salim Beg
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.46A001

The smart grid will be a power grid more “aware” of its operating state and having the ability to self-heal. These features may be incorporated into the grid by implementing a phasor measurement units based wide area measurement system. Such a system will help in better real time monitoring and control of the grid. However, the wide area measurement system is subject to challenges with respect to its security. In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of security issues with a wide area measurement system is presented and the research efforts required to be taken are identified. Moreover, the effect of communication failure on a PMU installed system has been presented using integer linear programming.

Community Smart Grid Utilizing Dynamic Demand Response and Tidal Power for Grid Stabilization  [PDF]
Anna Demeo, Michael L. Peterson
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2013.47053

Conventional electricity generation is one of the largest contributors to climate change. Renewable energy sources are a promising part of the solution but uncertainty combined with a lack of controllability prevents renewable sources of power from being direct substitutes of conventional energy sources. This shift towards a higher penetration of renewable energy into the electric grid can be realized with the implementation of a more sophisticated smart grid, which uses dynamic demand response to alter demand on following generation. Research on renewable energy penetration of the grid predominately focuses on wind and solar power resources but demand cannot always match availability from these sources and therefore greatly increases the need for energy storage. Tidal power differs from solar and wind. Its a predictably renewable resource which makes it extremely valuable even on a relatively small scale. Introduction of tidal power in a high penetration micro-grid can serve to stabilize the grid and reduce the amount of storage required. Widely different time scale for wind, solar and tidal power availability results in low cross correlations and therefore increases stability. This research describes an incremental approach to migrating a grid-tie island towards the formation of a smart-micro grid. The system will include a high penetration of three distributed generation systems, wind, solar and tidal and utilize commercially available energy storage and a smart-home management controller. Dynamic demand response through load balancing is implemented to minimize interactions with the electric grid. A second component of this work is to determine the optimum tidal generation capacity for the micro grid such that needed storage capacity from batteries or the utility grid is minimized.

Sensing the Nation: Smart Grid’s Risks and Vulnerabilities  [PDF]
Adedoyin Olayinka Ajayi, Boniface Kayode Alese, Sunday Emmanuel Fadugba, Kolade Owoeye
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2014.75017

This paper presents issues and trepidations associated with transferring from conventional methods of electricity monitoring and distribution to the cyberspace, especially in developing countries like Nigeria where current approaches have failed to provide regular, reliable electric power. The Smart Power Grid is a developing concept already put to test, successfully, in very advanced countries. The implementation of the Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. Connecting the electricity grid to the Internet can provide a lot of advantages in terms of control, data viewing and generation. However, in Nigeria, the proposal to transfer conventional methods to the Smart Grid has perhaps not hit the deck yet because of excessive focus on power generation, and because of the annotated reservations associated with the Internet, as the Smart Grid involves circulation and dispersal via inter-networking structures. This paper describes the key technologies that support Power Grid substation automation, summarizes the mode of implementation into the existing Nigerian electrical infrastructure and brings fore issues and mitigating approaches to provide a seamless and securitised transfer of the current power grid to the Smart Grid.

Integrating Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Technology into the Nigerian Electricity Grid System  [PDF]
Emodi Nnaemeka Vincent, Samson D. Yusuf
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2014.59021
Abstract: The electricity situation in Nigeria can be described as epileptic with no sign in view of improvement. This epileptic power situation affects the manufacturing, service and residential sectors of the economy which in turn affects the country’s economic growth. Even with the recent reforms in the power sector, more than half of the country’s population still lack access to electricity. The epileptic condition of the power sector can be attributed to the inadequate and inefficient power plants, poor transmission and distribution facilities, and outdated metering system used by electricity consumers. This paper attempts to present the way forward for the Nigerian poor electricity situation by reviewing the power sector as a whole and the renewable energy potentials. We identified the problems in the national grid and then proposed a smart grid model for the Nigerian power sector which will include renewable energy source. We believe that the content of this review paper will solve the poor epileptic condition of the power sector in Nigeria and also enable the proper integration of smart grid technology into the national grid.
Wireless Sensor Networks Based Control Strategies for the Enhancement of Reliability in Smart Grids  [PDF]
A. K. P. Kovendan, D. Sridharan
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79216
Abstract: The rapid increase in the demand for electricity necessitates the power quality improvement for achieving better reliability in smart grids. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is the proven technology for reliable monitoring. This paper proposes a system model for the development and implementation of WSN based communication system for the monitoring of distributed generation, loads and transmission lines in the electrical grid and a controller system for automated control on the electrical grid. This work also aims to reduce the carbon footprints by reducing the dependency of electrical grid through the enhancement of distributed generation and grid sharing for avoiding voltage rise problem. To achieve this, a smarter electrical grid has been developed for the validation of smart grid considering a generation substation, a transmission substation and a distributed generation with loads. The occurrence of power quality issue and voltage rise has been controlled by active power control strategy. The communication network and controller has been modeled and tested for the performance of monitoring system and data communication capability on smart grid.
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