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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 33611 matches for " Gretchen Van Wye "
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Does Random Treatment Assignment Cause Harm to Research Participants?
Cary P Gross ,Harlan M Krumholz,Gretchen Van Wye,Ezekiel J Emanuel,David Wendler
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030188
Abstract: Background Some argue that by precluding individualized treatment, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) provide substandard medical care, while others claim that participation in clinical research is associated with improved patient outcomes. However, there are few data to assess the impact of random treatment assignment on RCT participants. We therefore performed a systematic review to quantify the differences in health outcomes between randomized trial participants and eligible non-participants. Methods and Findings Studies were identified by searching Medline, the Web of Science citation database, and manuscript references. Studies were eligible if they documented baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes of RCT participants and eligible non-participants, and allowed non-participants access to the same interventions available to trial participants. Primary study outcomes according to patient group (randomized trial participants versus eligible non-participants) were extracted from all eligible manuscripts. For 22 of the 25 studies (88%) meeting eligibility criteria, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between patients who received random assignment of treatment (RCT participants) and those who received individualized treatment assignment (eligible non-participants). In addition, there was no relation between random treatment assignment and clinical outcome in 15 of the 17 studies (88%) in which randomized and nonrandomized patients had similar health status at baseline. Conclusions These findings suggest that randomized treatment assignment as part of a clinical trial does not harm research participants.
Obesity and Diabetes in New York City, 2002 and 2004
Gretchen Van Wye, PhD,Bonnie D. Kerker, PhD, MPH,Thomas Matte, MD, MPH,Shadi Chamany, MD, MPH
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction Obesity and diabetes have increased rapidly nationwide, yet reliable information on these disease trends in local urban settings is unavailable. We undertook this study to characterize trends in obesity and diagnosed diabetes from 2002 to 2004 among white, black, and Hispanic adult residents of New York City.Methods We used data from the Community Health Survey, an annual random-digit–dial telephone survey of approximately 10,000 New York City adults aged 18 years or older, and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a similar nationwide survey. Main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI), calculated from self-reported height and weight, and self-reported diabetes.Results In 2 years, the prevalence of obesity increased 17% in New York City, from 19.5% in 2002 to 22.8% in 2004 (P < .0001). The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes also increased 17%, from 8.1% in 2002 to 9.5% in 2004 (P < .01). Nationally, the prevalence of obesity increased by 6% during this same time period (P < .05), and diabetes prevalence did not increase significantly. The median BMI among white adults in New York City was 25.1 kg/m2, significantly lower than among Hispanics (26.4 kg/m2) and blacks (26.6 kg/m2, P < .05). The prevalence of diabetes increased across all BMI categories.Discussion The rapid increase in obesity and diabetes in New York City suggests the severity of these twin epidemics and the importance of collecting and analyzing local data for local programming and policy making.
Are Racial and Ethnic Minorities Less Willing to Participate in Health Research?
David Wendler ,Raynard Kington,Jennifer Madans,Gretchen Van Wye,Heidi Christ-Schmidt,Laura A Pratt,Otis W Brawley,Cary P Gross,Ezekiel Emanuel
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030019
Abstract: Background It is widely claimed that racial and ethnic minorities, especially in the US, are less willing than non-minority individuals to participate in health research. Yet, there is a paucity of empirical data to substantiate this claim. Methods and Findings We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published health research studies that report consent rates by race or ethnicity. We found 20 health research studies that reported consent rates by race or ethnicity. These 20 studies reported the enrollment decisions of over 70,000 individuals for a broad range of research, from interviews to drug treatment to surgical trials. Eighteen of the twenty studies were single-site studies conducted exclusively in the US or multi-site studies where the majority of sites (i.e., at least 2/3) were in the US. Of the remaining two studies, the Concorde study was conducted at 74 sites in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and France, while the Delta study was conducted at 152 sites in Europe and 23 sites in Australia and New Zealand. For the three interview or non-intervention studies, African-Americans had a nonsignificantly lower overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (82.2% versus 83.5%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84–1.02). For these same three studies, Hispanics had a nonsignificantly higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (86.1% versus 83.5%; OR = 1.37; 95% CI 0.94–1.98). For the ten clinical intervention studies, African-Americans' overall consent rate was nonsignificantly higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (45.3% versus 41.8%; OR = 1.06; 95% CI 0.78–1.45). For these same ten studies, Hispanics had a statistically significant higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (55.9% versus 41.8%; OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.08–1.65). For the seven surgery trials, which report all minority groups together, minorities as a group had a nonsignificantly higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (65.8% versus 47.8%; OR = 1.26; 95% CI 0.89–1.77). Given the preponderance of US sites, the vast majority of these individuals from minority groups were African-Americans or Hispanics from the US. Conclusions We found very small differences in the willingness of minorities, most of whom were African-Americans and Hispanics in the US, to participate in health research compared to non-Hispanic whites. These findings, based on the research enrollment decisions of over 70,000 individuals, the vast majority from the US, suggest that racial and ethnic minorities in the US are as willing as non-Hispanic
Differential Effects of Chronic and Chronic-Intermittent Ethanol Treatment and Its Withdrawal on the Expression of miRNAs
Gretchen van Steenwyk,Paulina Janeczek,Joanne M. Lewohl
Brain Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/brainsci3020744
Abstract: Chronic and excessive alcohol misuse results in changes in the expression of selected miRNAs and their mRNA targets in specific regions of the human brain. These expression changes likely underlie the cellular adaptations to long term alcohol misuse. In order to delineate the mechanism by which these expression changes occur, we have measured the expression of six miRNAs including miR-7, miR-153, miR-152, miR-15B, miR-203 and miR-144 in HEK293T, SH SY5Y and 1321 N1 cells following exposure to ethanol. These miRNAs are predicted to target key genes involved in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Chronic and chronic-intermittent exposure to ethanol, and its removal, resulted in specific changes in miRNA expression in each cell line suggesting that different expression patterns can be elicited with different exposure paradigms and that the mechanism of ethanol’s effects is dependent on cell type. Specifically, chronic exposure to ethanol for five days followed by a five day withdrawal period resulted in up-regulation of several miRNAs in each of these cell lines similar to expression changes identified in post mortem human brain. Thus, this model can be used to elucidate the role of miRNAs in regulating gene expression changes that occur in response to ethanol exposure.
Are Racial and Ethnic Minorities Less Willing to Participate in Health Research?
Wendler,Kington,Madans,Wye
PLOS Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is widely claimed that racial and ethnic minorities, especially in the US, are less willing than non-minority individuals to participate in health research. Yet, there is a paucity of empirical data to substantiate this claim. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published health research studies that report consent rates by race or ethnicity. We found 20 health research studies that reported consent rates by race or ethnicity. These 20 studies reported the enrollment decisions of over 70,000 individuals for a broad range of research, from interviews to drug treatment to surgical trials. Eighteen of the twenty studies were single-site studies conducted exclusively in the US or multi-site studies where the majority of sites (i.e., at least 2/3) were in the US. Of the remaining two studies, the Concorde study was conducted at 74 sites in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and France, while the Delta study was conducted at 152 sites in Europe and 23 sites in Australia and New Zealand. For the three interview or non-intervention studies, African-Americans had a nonsignificantly lower overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (82.2% versus 83.5%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.02). For these same three studies, Hispanics had a nonsignificantly higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (86.1% versus 83.5%; OR = 1.37; 95% CI 0.94-1.98). For the ten clinical intervention studies, African-Americans' overall consent rate was nonsignificantly higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (45.3% versus 41.8%; OR = 1.06; 95% CI 0.78-1.45). For these same ten studies, Hispanics had a statistically significant higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (55.9% versus 41.8%; OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.08-1.65). For the seven surgery trials, which report all minority groups together, minorities as a group had a nonsignificantly higher overall consent rate than non-Hispanic whites (65.8% versus 47.8%; OR = 1.26; 95% CI 0.89-1.77). Given the preponderance of US sites, the vast majority of these individuals from minority groups were African-Americans or Hispanics from the US. CONCLUSIONS: We found very small differences in the willingness of minorities, most of whom were African-Americans and Hispanics in the US, to participate in health research compared to non-Hispanic whites. These findings, based on the research enrollment decisions of over 70,000 individuals, the vast majority from the US, suggest that racial and ethnic minorities in the US are as willing as non-Hispanic w
The effect of controlling the ABC’s of diabetes on cardiovascular disease in a community-based endocrinology practice  [PDF]
Swarna Varma, Gretchen A. Piatt
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.34031
Abstract:

Introduction: Large clinical trials demonstrate that glycemic, blood pressure, and cholesterol control lead to risk reduction in cardiovascular events. We determined whether A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol control were associated with incident cardiovascular disease [CVD] in a community-based endocrinology practice over 10 years. Methods: 385 consecutive patients seen for diabetes management in a CBEP comprised the analysis cohort. To be included, a patient had ≥2 A1c, blood pressure, and LDLc measurements respectively without prevalent CVD. All patients were 18 years or older with a diagnosis of diabetes before or during calendar year 2000. Results: 17.6% of patients developed incident CVD over 10 years. After controlling for age, gender, and time, patients who improved their A1c to <7% during the time they spent in the practice had a 47% reduction in incident CVD [hazard rate = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.26 - 1.1]. Similar trends were observed for LDLc [27% reduction, hazard rate = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.3 - 1.8] and blood pressure control [35% reduction, hazard rate = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.33 - 1.3]. Additionally, patients who achieved all ABCSs at goal level at least once were 2.5x more likely not to develop incident CVD [hazard rate = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 5.1] during their time in the practice. Conclusion: These results highlight the feasibility of achieving A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol goals and demonstrate the significant impact that control has on incident CVD in a community-based endocrinology practice. Models of care that focus on prevention of complications through A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol control may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality.

“Middle’s open!” - Norms regarding hitting in adult recreational softball
Gretchen Peterson
Social Sciences Directory , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7563/ssd_02_01_01
Abstract: In recent years, changes in bat and ball technology for slow-pitch softball have made the position of pitcher particularly dangerous in recreational softball due to the speed at which the batted ball comes off a bat. With this increasing danger has come a new focus among players on balls being hit towards the pitcher. Referred to as “going middle”, these hits at the pitcher have norms about when such acts should be reciprocated. The phenomenon of going middle is explored through participant observation of adult recreational softball tournaments in southern California and through the analysis of the results of an online survey distributed nationally. The role that gender plays in perceptions of balls hit at the pitcher are explored.
Interdisciplinary Disorientation: A Student's Perspective
Gretchen Sween
Philosophica , 1991,
Abstract:
Are You Reading YA Lit? You Should Be.
Gretchen Kolderup
In the Library with the Lead Pipe , 2011,
Abstract: I’m a young adult librarian, but I didn’t read young adult lit when I was a teen myself. I was a precocious reader and desperate to be treated like a grown-up, so I read books for grown-ups because anything else was just too puerile for someone as obviously mature and sophisticated as I. It wasn’t [...]
What I Wish I’d Known About Building Teen Services From Scratch
Gretchen Kolderup
In the Library with the Lead Pipe , 2013,
Abstract: In brief: During my first professional position I found myself building a teen services program from scratch at a public library in a small town. In this article, I reflect on some of what I learned through that experience, including the value of data, the importance of having a vision, how much relationships matter, and [...]
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