Abstract:
Let $G$ be a Lie group and $G\to\Aut(G)$ be the canonical group homomorphism induced by the adjoint action of a group on itself. We give an explicit description of a 1-1 correspondence between Morita equivalence classes of, on the one hand, principal 2-group $[G\to\Aut(G)]$-bundles over Lie groupoids and, on the other hand, $G$-extensions of Lie groupoids (i.e.\ between principal $[G\to\Aut(G)]$-bundles over differentiable stacks and $G$-gerbes over differentiable stacks). This approach also allows us to identify $G$-bound gerbes and $[Z(G)\to 1]$-group bundles over differentiable stacks, where $Z(G)$ is the center of $G$. We also introduce universal characteristic classes for 2-group bundles. For groupoid central $G$-extensions, we introduce Dixmier--Douady classes that can be computed from connection-type data generalizing the ones for bundle gerbes. We prove that these classes coincide with universal characteristic classes. As a corollary, we obtain further that Dixmier--Douady classes are integral.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the cohomology of (strict) Lie 2-groups. We obtain an explicit Bott-Shulman type map in the case of a Lie 2-group corresponding to the crossed module $A\to 1$. The cohomology of the Lie 2-groups corresponding to the universal crossed modules $G\to \Aut(G)$ and $G\to \Aut^+(G)$ is the abutment of a spectral sequence involving the cohomology of $GL(n,\Z)$ and $SL(n,\Z)$. When the dimension of the center of $G$ is less than 3, we compute explicitly these cohomology groups. We also compute the cohomology of the Lie 2-group corresponding to a crossed module $G\to H$ whose kernel is compact and cokernel is connected, simply connected and compact and apply the result to the string 2-group.

Abstract:
We study the (standard) cohomology $H^\bullet_{st}(E)$ of a Courant algebroid $E$. We prove that if $E$ is transitive, the standard cohomology coincides with the naive cohomology $H_{naive}^\bullet(E)$ as conjectured by Stienon and Xu. For a general Courant algebroid we define a spectral sequence converging to its standard cohomology. If $E$ is with split base, we prove that there exists a natural transgression homomorphism $T_3$ (with image in $H^3_{naive}(E)$) which, together with the naive cohomology, gives all $H^\bullet_{st}(E)$. For generalized exact Courant algebroids, we give an explicit formula for $T_3$ depending only on the \v{S}evera characteristic clas of $E$.

Abstract:
This paper is a continuations of the project initiated in the book string topology for stacks. We construct string operations on the SO(2)-equivariant homology of the (free) loop space $L(X)$ of an oriented differentiable stack $X$ and show that $H^{SO(2)}_{*+dim(X) -2}(L(X))$ is a graded Lie algebra. In the particular case where $X$ is a 2-dimensional orbifold we give a Goldman-type description for the string bracket. To prove these results, we develop a machinery of (weak) group actions on topological stacks which should be of independent interest. We explicitly construct the quotient stack of a group acting on a stack and show that it is a topological stack. Then use its homotopy type to define equivariant (co)homology for stacks, transfer maps, and so on.

Abstract:
In this paper, we study the higher Hochschild functor and its relationship with factorization algebras and topological chiral homology. To this end, we emphasize that the higher Hochschild complex is a $(\infty,1)$-functor from the category $\hsset \times \hcdga$ to the category $\hcdga$ (where $\hsset$ and $\hcdga$ are the $(\infty,1)$-categories of simplicial sets and commutative differential graded algebras) and give an axiomatic characterization of this functor. From the axioms we deduce several properties and computational tools for this functor. We study the relationship between the higher Hochschild functor and factorization algebras by showing that, in good cases, the Hochschild functor determines a constant commutative factorization algebra. Conversely, every constant commutative factorization algebra is naturally equivalent to a Hochschild chain factorization algebra. Similarly, we study the relationship between the above concepts and topological chiral homology. In particular, we show that on their common domains of definition, the higher Hochschild functor is naturally equivalent to topological chiral homology. Finally, we prove that topological chiral homology determines a locally constant factorization algebra and, further, that this functor induces an equivalence between locally constant factorization algebras on a manifold and (local system of) $E_n$-algebras. We also deduce that Hochschild chains and topological chiral homology satisfies an exponential law, i.e., a Fubini type Theorem to compute them on products of manifolds.

Abstract:
We use factorization homology and higher Hochschild (co)chains to study various problems in algebraic topology and homotopical algebra, notably brane topology, centralizers of $E_n$-algebras maps and iterated bar constructions. In particular, we obtain an $E_{n+1}$-algebra model on the shifted integral chains of the mapping space of the n-sphere into an orientable closed manifold $M$. We construct and use $E_\infty$-Poincar\'e duality to identify higher Hochschild cochains, modeled over the $n$-sphere, with the chains on the above mapping space, and then relate Hochschild cochains to the deformation complex of the $E_\infty$-algebra $C^*(M)$, thought of as an $E_n$-algebra. We invoke (and prove) the higher Deligne conjecture to furnish $E_n$-Hochschild cohomology, and all that is naturally equivalent to it, with an $E_{n+1}$-algebra structure. We prove that this construction recovers the sphere product. In fact, our approach to the Deligne conjecture is based on an explicit description of the $E_n$-centralizers of a map of $E_\infty$-algebras $f:A\to B$ by relating it to the algebraic structure on Hochschild cochains modeled over spheres, which is of independent interest and explicit. More generally, we give a factorization algebra model/description of the centralizer of any $E_n$-algebra map and a solution of Deligne conjecture. We also apply similar ideas to the iterated bar construction. We obtain factorization algebra models for (iterated) bar construction of augmented $E_m$-algebras together with their $E_n$-coalgebras and $E_{m-n}$-algebra structures, and discuss some of its features. For $E_\infty$-algebras we obtain a higher Hochschild chain model, which is an $E_n$-coalgebra. In particular, considering an n-connected topological space $Y$, we obtain a higher Hochschild cochain model of the natural $E_n$-algebra structure of the chains of the iterated loop space of $Y$.

Abstract:
We develop a machinery of Chen iterated integrals for higher Hochschild complexes. These are complexes whose differentials are modeled on an arbitrary simplicial set much in the same way the ordinary Hochschild differential is modeled on the circle. We use these to give algebraic models for general mapping spaces and define and study the surface product operation on the homology of mapping spaces of surfaces of all genera into a manifold. This is an analogue of the loop product in string topology. As an application, we show this product is homotopy invariant. We prove Hochschild-Kostant-Rosenberg type theorems and use them to give explicit formulae for the surface product of odd spheres and Lie groups.

Abstract:
Let X be a Poisson manifold and C a coisotropic submanifold and let I be the vanishing ideal of C. In this work we want to construct a star product * on X such that I[[lambda]] is a left ideal for *. Thus we obtain a representation of the star product algebra A[[lambda]] = C^\infty(X)[[lambda]] on B[[lambda]] = A[[lambda]] / I[[lambda]] deforming the usual representation of A on the functions on C. The result follows from a generalization of Tamarkin's formality adapted to the submanifold C. We show that in the case X = R^n and C = R^{n-l} with l > 1 there are no obstructions to this formality.

Abstract:
These notes are an expanded version of two series of lectures given at the winter school in mathematical physics at les Houches and at the Vietnamese Institute for Mathematical Sciences. They are an introduction to factorization algebras, factorization homology and some of their applications, notably for studying $E_n$-algebras. We give an account of homology theory for manifolds (and spaces), which give invariant of manifolds but also invariant of $E_n$-algebras. We particularly emphasize the point of view of factorization algebras (a structure originating from quantum field theory) which plays, with respect to homology theory for manifolds, the role of sheaves with respect to singular cohomology. We mention some applications to the study of mapping spaces and study several examples, including some over stratified spaces.

Abstract:
Let $\g\_2$ be the Hochschild complex of cochains on $C^\infty(\RM^n)$ and $\g\_1$ be the space of multivector fields on $\RM^n$. In this paper we prove that given any $G\_\infty$-structure ({\rm i.e.} Gerstenhaber algebra up to homotopy structure) on $\g\_2$, and any $C\_\infty$-morphism $\phi$ ({\rm i.e.} morphism of commutative, associative algebra up to homotopy) between $\g\_1$ and $\g\_2$, there exists a $G\_\infty$-morphism $\Phi$ between $\g\_1$ and $\g\_2$ that restricts to $\phi$. We also show that any $L\_\infty$-morphism ({\rm i.e.} morphism of Lie algebra up to homotopy), in particular the one constructed by Kontsevich, can be deformed into a $G\_\infty$-morphism, using Tamarkin's method for any $G\_\infty$-structure on $\g\_2$. We also show that any two of such $G\_\infty$-morphisms are homotopic.